UNAIDS. Global HIV & AIDS statistics—fact sheet. https://www.unaids.org/en/resources/fact-sheet. 2020. Accessed Dec 2021
UNAIDS. 2030-Ending the AIDS Epidemic, the 2025 AIDS Targets. 2021. https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/2025-AIDS-Targets_enpdf Accessed 27 Dec 2021.
Uganda AIDS Commission. Uganda AIDS country progress report July 2017-june 2018. “Enhancing HIV Mainstreaming towards ending AIDS as a Public Health threat in Uganda by 2030”. https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/country/documents/UGA_2019_countryreportpdf. 2018. Accessed Dec 2021.
Uganda AIDS Commission. Factsheet - Facts on HIV and AIDS in Uganda 2021, based on data ending 31st Dec 2020. UNAIDS- HIV AND AIDS RESPONSE 2020 03 sept edition copy. https://uac.goug/media/attachments/2021/09/13/final-2021-hiv-aids-factsheetpdf. Accessed Dec 2021.
Uganda Legal Information Institute. Penal Code Act 1950, (2000). https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/75312/100698/F-852255241/UGA75312pdf. Accessed Jan 2022.
Wanyenze RK, Musinguzi G, Kiguli J, Nuwaha F, Mujisha G, Musinguzi J, et al. “When they know that you are a sex worker, you will be the last person to be treated”: perceptions and experiences of female sex workers in accessing HIV services in Uganda. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2017;17(1):1–11.
Nakanwagi S, Matovu JK, Kintu BN, Kaharuza F, Wanyenze RK. Facilitators and barriers to linkage to hiv care among female sex workers receiving hiv testing services at a community-based organization in Periurban Uganda: a qualitative study. J Sex Transm Dis. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7673014.
Doshi RH, Sande E, Ogwal M, Kiyingi H, McIntyre A, Kusiima J, et al. Progress toward UNAIDS 90–90-90 targets: a respondent-driven survey among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(9): e0201352.
Holland CE, Papworth E, Billong SC, Tamoufe U, LeBreton M, Kamla A, et al. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for men who have sex with men and female sex workers living with HIV in Cameroon. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;68:S232–40.
World Health Organisation. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2016.
World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.
Mountain E, Mishra S, Vickerman P, Pickles M, Gilks C, Boily M-C. Antiretroviral therapy uptake, attrition, adherence and outcomes among HIV-infected female sex workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(9): e105645.
Cowan FM, Mtetwa S, Davey C, Fearon E, Dirawo J, Wong-Gruenwald R, et al. Engagement with HIV prevention treatment and care among female sex workers in Zimbabwe: a respondent driven sampling survey. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10): e77080.
Lancaster KE, Cernigliaro D, Zulliger R, Fleming PF. HIV care and treatment experiences among female sex workers living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Afr J AIDS Res. 2016;15(4):377–86.
Atuhaire L, Adetokunboh O, Shumba C, Nyasulu PS. Effect of community-based interventions targeting female sex workers along the HIV care cascade in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev. 2021;10(1):1–20.
Vuylsteke B, Semdé G, Auld AF, Sabatier J, Kouakou J, Ettiègne-Traoré V, et al. Retention and risk factors for loss to follow-up of female and male sex workers on antiretroviral treatment in Ivory Coast: a retrospective cohort analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;68(Suppl 2):S99.
Ibiloye O, Jwanle P, Masquillier C, Van Belle S, Jaachi E, Amoo O, et al. Long-term retention and predictors of attrition for key populations receiving antiretroviral treatment through community-based ART in Benue State Nigeria: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(11): e0260557.
Lancaster KE, Powers KA, Lungu T, Mmodzi P, Hosseinipour MC, Chadwick K, et al. The HIV care continuum among female sex workers: a key population in Lilongwe. Malawi. 2016;11(1): e0147662.
Cowan FM, Davey CB, Fearon E, Mushati P, Dirawo J, Cambiano V, et al. The HIV care cascade among female sex workers in Zimbabwe: results of a population-based survey from the Sisters Antiretroviral Therapy Programme for Prevention of HIV, an Integrated Response (SAPPH-IRe) Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(4):375–82.
Mukumbang FC, Marchal B, Van Belle S, van Wyk B. A realist approach to eliciting the initial programme theory of the antiretroviral treatment adherence club intervention in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18(1):1–16.
Cowan FM, Davey C, Fearon E, Mushati P, Dirawo J, Chabata S, et al. Targeted combination prevention to support female sex workers in Zimbabwe accessing and adhering to antiretrovirals for treatment and prevention of HIV (SAPPH-IRe): a cluster-randomised trial. The lancet HIV. 2018;5(8):e417–26.
Uganda AIDS Commission. Uganda AIDS Commission. Acceleration of HIV prevention in Uganda. Towards sustainability, ownership and resilient HIV prevention systems, A road map towards zero new infections by 2030. https://uac.goug/media/attachments/2021/12/08/prevention-road-map-finalpdf. Accessed Mar 2022.
Kamacooko O, Mayanja Y, Bagiire D, Namale G, Hansen CH, Seeley J. Predictors of lost to follow-up in a “test and treat” programme among adult women with high-risk sexual behavior in Kampala. Uganda BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1–9.
Doshi RH, Apodaca K, Ogwal M, Bain R, Amene E, Kiyingi H, et al. Correction: Estimating the Size of Key Populations in Kampala, Uganda: 3-Source Capture-Recapture Study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2): e19893.
MOH. Consolidated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of HIV and AIDS in Uganda. 2020. http://library.health.go.ug/publications/hivaids/consolidated-guidelines-prevention-and-treatment-hiv-uganda. Accessed Mar 2022.
WHO. Strategic Information Guidelines. https://indicator.registry.unaids.org/sites/default/files/9789240000735-engpdf. 2020. Accessed Mar 2022.
Cowan FM, Chabata ST, Musemburi S, Fearon E, Davey C, Ndori-Mharadze T, et al. Strengthening the scale-up and uptake of effective interventions for sex workers for population impact in Zimbabwe. J Int AIDS Soc. 2019;22: e25320.
Zulliger R, Barrington C, Donastorg Y, Perez M, Kerrigan D. High drop-off along the HIV care continuum and ART interruption among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;69(2):216–22.
World Health Organization. Serving the needs of key populations: case examples of innovation and good practice on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care. 2017. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/255610. Accessed Mar 2022.
International AIDS Society. Differentiated service delivery for HIV: a decision framework for HIV testing services. World Health Organization. 2018. https://www.iasociety.org/HIV-Programmes/Programmes/Differentiated-Service-Delivery/Resources. Accessed Apr 2021.
Namale G, Kamacooko O, Bagiire D, Mayanja Y, Abaasa A, Kilembe W, et al. Sustained virological response and drug resistance among female sex workers living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Kampala, Uganda: a cross-sectional study. Sex Transm Infect. 2019;95(6):405–11.
Byonanebye DM, Semitala FC, Katende J, Bakenga A, Arinaitwe I, Kyambadde P, et al. High viral suppression and low attrition in healthy HIV-infected patients initiated on ART with CD4 above 500 cells/μL in a program setting in Uganda. Afr Health Sci. 2020;20(1):132–41.
Huet C, Ouedraogo A, Konaté I, Traore I, Rouet F, Kaboré A, et al. Long term virological, immunological and mortality outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected female sex workers treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Africa. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):1–10.
Kerrigan D, Mbwambo J, Likindikoki S, Davis W, Mantsios A, Beckham SW, et al. Project Shikamana: community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention significantly impacts HIV incidence and care continuum outcomes among female sex workers in Iringa Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019;82(2):141.
PEPFAR. 2021 Country and Regional Operational Plan (COP/ROP) Guidance for all PEFPAR countries. US State Department. 2021. https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/PEPFAR-COP21-Guidance-Final.pdf. Accessed Apr 2022.
Uganda AIDS Commission. Annual Joint AIDS Review Report 2019/2020, Uganda. 2020. https://uac.go.ug/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=22:hiv-prevention-1121&catid=8&Itemid=101. Accessed Mar 2022.
Sikombe K, Hantuba C, Musukuma K, Sharma A, Padian N, Holmes C, et al. Accurate dried blood spots collection in the community using non-medically trained personnel could support scaling up routine viral load testing in resource limited settings. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(10): e0223573.
Napierala S, Chabata ST, Fearon E, Davey C, Hargreaves J, Busza J, et al. Engagement in HIV care among young female sex workers in Zimbabwe. JAIDS. 2018;79(3):358–66.
Brown LB, Ayieko J, Mwangwa F, Owaraganise A, Kwarisiima D, Jain V, et al. Predictors of retention in HIV care among youth (15–24) in a universal test-and-treat setting in rural Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;76(1):e15.
Kiwanuka J, Mukulu Waila J, Muhindo Kahungu M, Kitonsa J, Kiwanuka N. Determinants of loss to follow-up among HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in a test and treat setting: a retrospective cohort study in Masaka, Uganda. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(4): e0217606.
South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2017. https://www.hsrcpress.ac.za/books/south-african-national-hiv-prevalence-incidencebehaviour-and-communication-survey-2017. Accessed Apr 2022
MOH. Press Statement; Release Of Preliminary Results of the 2020 Uganda Population-Based HIV Impact Assessment, 2022 https://www.health.go.ug/2022/02/10/ministry-of-health-releases-the-preliminary-results-of-uphia-2022. Accessed March, 2022.
Atuhaire L, Shumba CS, Nyasulu PS. “My condition is my secret”: perspectives of HIV positive female sex workers on differentiated service delivery models in Kampala Uganda. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22(1):1–13.
Delany-Moretlwe S, Cowan FM, Busza J, Bolton-Moore C, Kelley K, Fairlie L. Providing comprehensive health services for young key populations: needs, barriers and gaps. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015;18:19833.
UNICEF. Looking out for Adolescents and Youth from Key Populations. Formative assessment on the needs of adolescents and youth at risk of HIV: Case studies from Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. 2019. https://www.unicef.org/eap/reports/looking-out-adolescents-and-youth-key-populations. Accessed Apr 2022.
Subbaraman R, de Mondesert L, Musiimenta A, Pai M, Mayer KH, Thomas BE, et al. Digital adherence technologies for the management of tuberculosis therapy: mapping the landscape and research priorities. BMJ Glob Health. 2018;3(5): e001018.