COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University. 2021.
Wiersinga WJ, Rhodes A, Cheng AC, Peacock SJ. Pathophysiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA. 2020;324:782–93.
Eljaaly K, Malibary H, Alsulami S, Albanji M, Badawi M, Al-Tawfiq JA, et al. Description and analysis of cytokine storm in registered COVID-19 clinical trials: a systematic review. Pathogens. 2021;10:692. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060692.
Chen X, Zhao B, Qu Y, Chen Y, Xiong J, Feng Y, et al. Detectable serum SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely correlated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71:1937–42.
Rezaei S, Fatemi B, Karimi Majd Z, Minaei H, Peikanpour M, Anjidani N, et al. Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in severe and critical COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2021;00:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2021.1908128.
Salama C, Han J, Yau L, Reiss WG, Kramer B, Neidhart JD, et al. Tocilizumab in patients hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2021;384:20–30.
RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with 3 COVID-19 (RECOVERY): preliminary results of a 4 randomised, controlled, open-label, platform tria. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.11.21249258v1. Accessed 12 May 2021.
McCreary EK, Pogue JM. Coronavirus disease 2019 treatment: a review of early and emerging options. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020;7:ofaa105.
Sebba A. Tocilizumab: the first interleukin-6-receptor inhibitor. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2008;65:1413–8.
Hermine O, Mariette X, Tharaux PL, Resche-Rigon M, Porcher R, Ravaud P. Effect of tocilizumab vs usual care in adults hospitalized with COVID-19 and moderate or severe pneumonia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:32–40.
Stone JH, Frigault MJ, Serling-Boyd NJ, Fernandes AD, Harvey L, Foulkes AS, et al. Efficacy of tocilizumab in patients hospitalized with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:2333–44.
Kimmig LM, Wu D, Gold M, Pettit NN, Pitrak D, Mueller J, et al. IL6 inhibition in critically ill COVID-19 patients is associated with increased secondary infections. medRxiv. 2020.
Garcia-Vidal C, Sanjuan G, Moreno-García E, Puerta-Alcalde P, Garcia-Pouton N, Chumbita M, et al. Incidence of co-infections and superinfections in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021;27:83–8.
Giacobbe DR, Battaglini D, Ball L, Brunetti I, Bruzzone B, Codda G, et al. Bloodstream infections in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Eur J Clin Investig. 2020;50:e13319.
Saudi Ministry of Health. Saudi MoH Protocol for Patients Suspected of/Confirmed with COVID-19: supportive care and antiviral treatment of suspected or confirmed COVID-19infection (version 1.9) June 3rd. 2020. https://covid19.cdc.gov.
The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). M60 performance standards for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts, 2nd edition 2020 edition. 2020. 2020.
ICD. ICD-10-CM—International classification of diseases, tenth revision, clinical modification. 2021.
Magiorakos A-P, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, Carmeli Y, Falagas ME, Giske CG, et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:268–81.
Aleidan FAS, Alkhelaifi H, Alsenaid A, Alromaizan H, Alsalham F, Almutairi A, et al. Incidence and risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection in intensive care units: a matched case–control study. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021;19:393–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2020.1822736.
Shrier I, Platt RW. Reducing bias through directed acyclic graphs. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2008;8:70.
Kim YA, Park YS, Kim B, Seo YH, Lee K. Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization in intensive care units. Ann Lab Med. 2020;40:164–8.
Martín-Loeches I, Diaz E, Vallés J. Risks for multidrug-resistant pathogens in the ICU. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2014;20:516–24.
El mekes A, Zahlane K, Ait said L, Tadlaoui Ouafi A, Barakate M. The clinical and epidemiological risk factors of infections due to multi-drug resistant bacteria in an adult intensive care unit of University Hospital Center in Marrakesh-Morocco. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13:637–43.
Rajendram P, Sacha GL, Mehkri O, Wang X, Han X, Vachharajani V, et al. Tocilizumab in coronavirus disease 2019-related critical illness: a propensity matched analysis. Crit Care Explor. 2021;3:e0327.
Ignatius EH, Wang K, Karaba A, Robinson M, Avery RK, Blair P, et al. Tocilizumab for the treatment of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients: a matched retrospective cohort analysis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021;8:ofaa598.
Campochiaro C, Della-Torre E, Cavalli G, de Luca G, Ripa M, Boffini N, et al. Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in severe COVID-19 patients: a single-centre retrospective cohort study. Eur J Intern Med. 2020;76:43–9.
Gupta S, Wang W, Hayek SS, Chan L, Mathews KS, Melamed ML, et al. Association between early treatment with tocilizumab and mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:41–51.
Salvarani C, Dolci G, Massari M, Merlo DF, Cavuto S, Savoldi L, et al. Effect of tocilizumab vs standard care on clinical worsening in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:24–31.
Guaraldi G, Meschiari M, Cozzi-Lepri A, Milic J, Tonelli R, Menozzi M, et al. Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Rheumatol. 2020;2:e660–1.
Al Sulaiman K, Aljuhani O, Bin Salah K, Korayem GB, Eljaaly K, Al Essa M, et al. Single versus multiple doses of Tocilizumab in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a two-center, retrospective cohort study. J Crit Care. 2021;66:44–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2021.08.007.
Baiou A, Elbuzidi AA, Bakdach D, Zaqout A, Alarbi KM, Bintaher AA, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for the isolation of multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from critically ill patients with COVID-19. J Hosp Infect. 2021;110:165–71.
Vu CA, DeRonde KJ, Vega AD, Maxam M, Holt G, Natori Y, et al. Effects of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: a cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20:964.
Falcone M, Tiseo G, Giordano C, Leonildi A, Menichini M, Vecchione A, et al. Predictors of hospital-acquired bacterial and fungal superinfections in COVID-19: a prospective observational study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021;76:1078–84.
Price CC, Altice FL, Shyr Y, Koff A, Pischel L, Goshua G, et al. Tocilizumab treatment for cytokine release syndrome in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Chest. 2020;158:1397–408.
Atallah B, El Nekidy W, Mallah SI, Cherfan A, AbdelWareth L, Mallat J, et al. Thrombotic events following tocilizumab therapy in critically ill COVID-19 patients: a Façade for prognostic markers. Thromb J. 2020;18:22.
Bikdeli B, Madhavan MV, Jimenez D, Chuich T, Dreyfus I, Driggin E, et al. COVID-19 and thrombotic or thromboembolic disease: implications for prevention, antithrombotic therapy, and follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;75:2950–73.
Lakatos B, Szabo BG, Bobek I, Gopcsa L, Beko G, Kiss-Dala N, et al. Laboratory parameters predicting mortality of adult in-patients with COVID-19 associated cytokine release syndrome treated with high-dose tocilizumab. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2021;68:145–52.