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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants with persistenta and clearedb high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection during the study period 2011–2014 (n = 71)

From: Persistence of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus in women living with HIV in Denmark – the SHADE

  hrHPV persistence hrHPV clearance p-value
Number of individuals, n(%) 31 (43.7) 40 (56.3)
HIV duration (years), median (IQR) 7.6 (3.5–17.3) 11.5 (6.2–16.6) 0.45
Age at inclusion (years), median (IQR), 46.6 (34.0–51.3) 39.6 (33.5–47.4) 0.18
Race, n(%)
 White 13 (41.9) 20 (51.2) 0.29
 Asian 4 (12.9) 1 (2.6)
 Black 14 (45.2) 17 (43.6)
 Other 0 (0) 1 (2.6)
 (missing) (0) (1)
Place of HIV transmission, n(%)
 Denmark 11 (36.7) 16 (42.1) 0.05
 Europe + US 1 (3.3) 6 (15.8)
 Africa 14 (46.7) 16 (42.1)
 Asia 4 (13.3) 0 (0)
 (missing) (1) (2)
Mode of transmission, n(%)
 Heterosexual 29 (96.7) 31 (83.8) 0.32
 IDU 1 (3.3) 4 (10.8)
 Other 0 (0) 2 (5.4)
 (missing) (1) (3)
ARTc at inclusion, n(%)
 Yes 30 (96.8) 37 (92.5) 0.63
 No 1 (3.2) 3 (7.5)
 (missing) (0) (0)
ARTc duration (years), median (IQR) 5.4 (3.4–11.4) 8.1 (2.6–12.1) 0.66
On ARTc with HIV RNA < 40 copies/mL, n(%)
 Yes 21 (80.8) 24 (72.7) 0.47
 No 5 (19.2) 9 (27.3)
 (missing) (5) (7)
CD4 count at inclusion (cells/μL), n(%)
  < 350 11 (40.7) 5 (15.2) 0.026
  ≥ 350 16 (59.3) 28 (84.8)
  (missing) (4) (7)
AIDS prior to inclusion, n(%)
 Yes 10 (32.3) 6 (15.4) 0.10
 No 21 (67.7) 33 (84.6)
 (missing) (0) (1)
HPV vaccination prior to inclusion, n(%)
 No 29 (96.7) 40 (100.0) 0.43
 Yes (4-valent HPV vaccine) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Yes (2-valent HPV vaccine) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Yes (name of vaccine unknown) 1 (3.3) 0 (0)
 (missing) (1) (0)
Age at sexual debut, n(%)
  < 16 10 (32.3) 14 (35.0) 0.81
  ≥ 16 21 (67.7) 26 (65.0)
  (missing) (0) (0)
Lifetime sexual partners, n(%)
  < 5 7 (22.6) 5 (12.5) 0.59
 5–14 14 (45.2) 23 (57.5)
 15–25 3 (9.7) 5 (12.5)
  > 25 7 (22.6) 7 (17.5)
 (missing) (0) (0)
  1. aPersistent = Type-specific persistence was defined as positivity of the same hrHPV type in two separate cervical samples having been taken at least 1 year and at most 2 years after the date the patient was first hrHPV positive, bCleared = having one or more negative results after an hrHPV positive sample, cART = antiretroviral therapy