Tuberculous (TB) pneumonia can induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although TB pneumonia is one of the causes of disease and death among children worldwide, the literature on TB pneumonia-induced ARDS is limited. We report herein on the successful treatment of a two-year-old female child with TB pneumonia-induced severe ARDS complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
A two-year-old Vietnamese female child with sustained fever and cough for 20 days was transferred to our hospital. She had severe dyspnea and a chest X-ray showed bilateral infiltration without findings of heart failure. After tracheal intubation, her oxygenation index (OI) and PaO2/FiO2 (PF) ratio were 29 and 60 mmHg, respectively. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rPCR) assay of tracheal lavage fluid. She was diagnosed as having severe ARDS that developed from TB pneumonia. Anti-tuberculous therapy and cardiopulmonary support were started. However, her respiratory condition deteriorated despite treatment with high-frequency oscillating ventilation (HFO), vasopressor support, and 1 g/kg of immunoglobulin. On the third day after admission, her International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis DIC score had increased to 5. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) was administered to treat the DIC. After the administration of rTM was completed, OI gradually decreased, after which the mechanical ventilation mode was changed from HFO to synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation. The DIC score also gradually decreased. Plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycan end products (sRAGE) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), which are reported to be associated with ARDS severity, also decreased. In addition, inflammatory biomarkers, including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), decreased after the administration of rTM. Although severe ARDS (P/F ratio ≦ 100 mmHg) continued for 19 days, the patient’s OI and P/F ratio improved gradually, and she was extubated on the 27th day after admission. The severe ARDS with DIC was successfully treated, and she was discharged from hospital on day 33 post-admission.
We successfully treated a female child suffering from TB pneumonia-induced severe ARDS complicated with DIC using multimodal interventions. (338/350).