Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Carter A, Casey DC, Charlson FJ, Chen AZ, Coates MM. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet. 2016;388(10053):1459–544.
WHO. Global tuberculosis report 2016. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.
WHO. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In: 2015 UPDATE. programme Wgt. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.
WHO. Definitions and reporting framework for tuberculosis– 2013 revision. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
WHO. Use of high burden country lists for tuberculosis by WHO in the post-2015 era. In. Edited by programme WHOgt. Geneva, Switzerland; 2015.
Zhao Y, Xu S, Wang L, Chin DP, Wang S, Jiang G, Xia H, Zhou Y, Li Q, Ou X. National survey of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(23):2161–70.
Ragonnet R, Trauer JM, Denholm JT, Marais BJ, McBryde ES. High rates of multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis among re-treatment cases: where do they come from? BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):36.
McBryde ES, Meehan MT, Doan TN, Ragonnet R, Marais BJ, Guernier V, Trauer JM. The risk of global epidemic replacement with drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Int J Infect Dis. 2017;56(2017):14–20.
WHO. Towards universal access to diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug -resistant tuberculosis by 2015, WHO progress report 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
Hunan Provincial Bureau of Statistics. Statistical almanac of hunan province,China. In: Statistical Bureau of Hunan Province. vol. 2017; 2015.
Chen M, Kwaku AB, Chen Y, Huang X, Tan H, Wen SW. Gender and regional disparities of tuberculosis in Hunan, China. Int J Equity Health. 2014;13(1):32.
L-l Z, Chen Y, Chen Z-N, Liu H-C, Hu P-L, Sun Q, Zhao X-Q, Jiang Y, Li G-L, Tan Y-H. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Hunan, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(6):3475–80.
Ding P, Li X, Jia Z, Lu Z. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) disease burden in China: a systematic review and spatio-temporal analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(1):57.
WHO: Definitions and reporting framework for tuberculosis – 2013 revision (updated 2014) In. Geneva, Switzerland World Health Organization 2013.
Coviello V, Boggess M. Cumulative incidence estimation in the presence of competing risks. Stata J. 2004;4:103–12.
StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 15. College Station, Texas 77845 USA; 2015.
Liu CH, Li L, Chen Z, Wang Q, Hu YL, Zhu B, Woo PC. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis in a TB referral hospital in Beijing: a 13-year experience. PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e19399.
Khan MA, Mehreen S, Basit A, Khan RA, Jan F, Ullah I, Ihtesham M, Khan A, Ullah U, Javaid A. Characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis at a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Saudi Med J. 2015;36(12):1463.
Helbling P, Altpeter E, Egger J-M, Zellweger J-P. Treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Switzerland. Swiss Med Wkly. 2014;144:w14053.
Anderson L, Tamne S, Watson J, Cohen T, Mitnick C, Brown T, Drobniewski F, Abubakar I. Treatment outcome of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in the United Kingdom: retrospective-prospective cohort study from 2004 to 2007. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(40):1028–35.
Alene KA, Viney K, McBryde ES, Tsegaye AT, Clements AC. Treatment outcomes in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in north-west Ethiopia. Trop Med Int Health. 2017;22(3):351–62.
Oliveira O, Gaio R, Villar M, Duarte R. Predictors of treatment outcome in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Portugal. Eur Respir J. 2013;42(6):1747–9.
Tang S, Tan S, Yao L, Li F, Li L, Guo X, Liu Y, Hao X, Li Y, Ding X. Risk factors for poor treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB in China: retrospective multi-center investigation. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82943.
Sun Y, Harley D, Vally H, Sleigh A. Comparison of characteristics and mortality in multidrug resistant (MDR) and non-MDR tuberculosis patients in China. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):1027.
Gandhi NR, Nunn P, Dheda K, Schaaf HS, Zignol M, Van Soolingen D, Jensen P, Bayona J. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a threat to global control of tuberculosis. Lancet. 2010;375(9728):1830–43.
Fauci AS, Group NTW. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Research agenda and recommendations for priority research. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(11):1493–8.
Hu Y, Hoffner S, Wu L, Zhao Q, Jiang W, Xu B. Prevalence and genetic characterization of second-line drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Rural China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(8):3857–63.
Tang S: Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, China-Volume 17, Number 3—March 2011-Emerging Infectious Disease journal-CDC. 2011.
Andrews JR, Shah NS, Weissman D, Moll AP, Friedland G, Gandhi NR. Predictors of multidrug-and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence community. PLoS One. 2010;5(12):e15735.
Shao Y, Yang D, Xu W, Lu W, Song H, Dai Y, Shen H, Wang J. Epidemiology of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in a chinese population: current situation and challenges ahead. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):110.
Xu Z, Xiao T, Li Y, Yang K, Tang Y, Bai L. Reasons for Non-Enrollment in Treatment among Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Hunan Province, China. PloS one. 2017;12(1):e0170718.
WHO. WHO treatment guidelines for drugresistant tuberculosis. 2016 update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.
Huang FL, Jin JL, Chen S, Zhou Z, Diao N, Huang HQ, Liu W, Wang Q, Weng XH, Chaisson RE, et al. MTBDRplus results correlate with treatment outcome in previously treated tuberculosis patients. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015;19(3):319–25. i-ii
Shah NS, Auld SC, Brust JC, Mathema B, Ismail N, Moodley P, Mlisana K, Allana S, Campbell A, Mthiyane T. Transmission of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in South Africa. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(3):243–53.
Leimane V, Riekstina V, Holtz TH, Zarovska E, Skripconoka V, Thorpe LE, Laserson KF, Wells CD. Clinical outcome of individualised treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latvia: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2005;365(9456):318–26.
Ahmad N, Javaid A, Basit A, Afridi A, Khan M, Ahmad I, Sulaiman S, Khan A. Management and treatment outcomes of MDR-TB: results from a setting with high rates of drug resistance. Int J Tuberculosis Lung Dis. 2015;19(9):1109–14.
Kurbatova EV, Taylor A, Gammino VM, Bayona J, Becerra M, Danilovitz M, Falzon D, Gelmanova I, Keshavjee S, Leimane V. Predictors of poor outcomes among patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at DOTS-plus projects. Tuberculosis. 2012;92(5):397–403.
Falzon D, Gandhi N, Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Cox H, Holtz TH, Hollm-Delgado M-G, Keshavjee S, DeRiemer K, Centis R. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs: impact on MDR-TB outcomes. Eur Respir J. 2013;42(1):156–68.
Cohen J. Extensively drug-resistant TB gets foothold in South Africa. Science. 2006;313(5793):1554.
Gandhi NR, Moll A, Sturm AW, Pawinski R, Govender T, Lalloo U, Zeller K, Andrews J, Friedland G. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa. Lancet. 2006;368(9547):1575–80.
Kwon YS, Kim YH, Suh GY, Chung MP, Kim H, Kwon OJ, Choi YS, Kim K, Kim J, Shim YM. Treatment outcomes for HIV-uninfected patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(4):496–502.
Kim H-R, Hwang SS, Kim HJ, Lee SM, Yoo C-G, Kim YW, Han SK, Shim Y-S, Yim J-J. Impact of extensive drug resistance on treatment outcomes in non-HIV-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(10):1290–5.
Singh JA, Upshur R, Padayatchi N. XDR-TB in South Africa: no time for denial or complacency. PLoS Med. 2007;4(1):e50.