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Table 2 Intravaginal practices in the month prior to enrollment and laboratory parameters at baseline (vaginal flora, BV, HIV plasma and genital viral load, IL-6 and IL-8) by condition. (n = 128)

From: A bio-behavioral intervention to decrease intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis among HIV infected Zambian women, a randomized pilot study

   Condition N(%) Median(IQR)  
  All Experimental (n = 58) SOC+ (n = 70) p-value
Product use for IVP in the prior month
 Water     
  No 10 (7.8%) 5 (8.6%) 5 (7.1%)  
  Yes 118 (92.2%) 53 (91.4%) 65 (92.9%) 0.755a
 Soap
  No 39 (30.5%) 22 (37.9%) 17 (24.3%)  
  Yes 89 (69.5%) 36 (62.1%) 53 (75.7%) 0.095
 Cloth, sponge or a rag
  No 33 (47.1%) 27 (46.6%) 33 (47.1%)  
  Yes 68 (53.1%) 31 (53.4%) 37 (52.9%) > 0.999
 Traditional medicines     
  No 91 (71.1%) 43 (74.1%) 48 (68.6%)  
  Yes 37 (28.9%) 15 (25.9%) 22 (31.4%) 0.489
 Herbs or flowers from outdoors
  No 103 (80.5%) 46 (79.3%) 57 (81.4%)  
  Yes 25 (19.5%) 12 (20.7%) 13 (18.6%) 0.763
 Lemon
  No 115 (89.3%) 52 (89.7%) 63 (90.0%)  
  Yes 13 (10.2%) 6 (10.3%) 7 (10.0%) > 0.999
 Salt
  No 117 (91.4%) 54 (93.1%) 63 (90.0%)  
  Yes 11 (8.6%) 4 (6.9%) 7 (10.0%) 0.753a
 Vinegar
  No 124 (96.9%) 56 (96.6%) 68 (97.1%)  
  Yes 4 (3.1%) 2 (3.4%) 2 (2.9%) 0.848a
Laboratory parameters
 Abnormal vaginal flora
  No 30 (23.4%) 16 (27.6%) 14 (20.0%)  
  Yes 98 (76.6%) 42 (72.4%) 56 (80.0%) 0.213
 Bacterial vaginosis
  No 47 (36.7%) 24 (41.4%) 23 (32.9%)  
  Yes 81 (63.3%) 34 (58.6%) 47 (67.1%) 0.319
 Plasma HIV RNA
  Undetectable 100 (78.1%) 46 (79.3%) 54 (77.1%)  
  Detectable 28 (21.9%) 12 (20.7%) 16 (22.9%) 0.768
 CVL HIV RNA
  Undetectable 108 (84.4%) 50 (86.2%) 58 (82.9%)  
  Detectable 20 (15.6%) 8 (13.8%) 12 (17.1%) 0.603
 Lower genital tract cytokines
  IL-6 (n = 68; Exp = 35, SOC+ = 33) 289.9 (258.0) 306.3 (313.7) 282.6 (249.1) 0.944
  IL-8 (n = 68; Exp = 35, SOC+ = 33) 332.5 (1781.9) 380.11 (1311.9) 227.5 (2285.5) < 0.001
  1. CD4 cells/ml was self-reported
  2. Plasma and CVL HIV RNA limit of detection was 20 copies/milliliter
  3. CVL cervicovaginal lavage
  4. IVP intravaginal practices
  5. SOC+ enhanced standard of care
  6. Note. aFisher’s Exact test was used