- Case report
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Ocular toxocariasis presenting as bilateral scleritis with suspect retinal granuloma in the nerve fiber layer: a case report
© The Author(s). 2016
- Received: 4 January 2016
- Accepted: 7 August 2016
- Published: 18 August 2016
This report details ocular toxocariasis presenting as bilateral scleritis with suspect retinal granuloma in the nerve fiber layer.
The patient presented with scleritis, which did not improve with systemic steroid. Intraocular pressure was elevated, and well demarcated hyper-reflective round lesion were noted in both eyes. He had a history of general ache and concurrent onset of ocular symptoms the day after eating raw meat. Systemic work-ups revealed no remarkable abnormalities except antibody for toxocara. Oral albendazole and steroid were prescribed. The inflammation and swellings resolved without recurrence. In the current case, scleritis with suspect granuloma in the nerve fiber layer seems to be caused by toxocara.
Ocular toxocariasis can be presented as atypical features. Serologic exams for toxocariasis would be considered not only in typical features but also in other uveitis or scleritis, particularly when the patient has a related history.
- Ocular toxocariasis
- Visceral larva migrans
- Retinal granuloma
Scleritis is an ocular inflammatory disorder often associated with ocular or systemic diseases . Although the majority of cases are autoimmune in origin, infectious diseases are potential causes of scleritis . Herpes virus is the most common cause of scleritis associated with infection , and other organisms were also reported [3–7]. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of scleritis associated with ocular toxocariasis (OT).
Although OT is usually diagnosed clinically by identifying typical signs of retinal granuloma or nematode endophthalmitis , atypical presentations without granuloma such as invasion of ciliary body  or lens  and optic nerve swelling  have also been reported. A number of OT may be under-diagnosed due to the limitations of diagnostic tools. Here, we report a case of OT presenting as bilateral scleritis with suspect retinal granuloma in the nerve fiber layer.
A 68-year old male presented with ocular pain and redness for 4 weeks. He ingested raw meat about 1 month before, and ocular symptoms developed with general ache the next day. The patient didn’t have history related with pets. He frequently had eaten the uncooked meat.
He had been treated with topical and systemic steroid in another clinic for 2 weeks, and was referred to our clinic due to uncontrolled inflammation and intraocular pressure (IOP). Medical history and systemic work-ups for conditions related to scleritis, including herpes virus, Wegener’s granulomatosis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, revealed no remarkable abnormality.
The majority of underlying diseases of scleritis are autoimmune in origin. However, it has been also reported that various infectious organisms, including virus, bacteria, fungus, or protozoa, may cause scleritis [2–7]. Although the remaining cases are classified as idiopathic, it is supposed that an idiopathic disease can be found to have associations with a specific disease in future. This is important to conduct a disease-specific treatment, which would be more effective with fewer side effects.
Although most OT was thought to develop in pediatric patients , recent reports indicated that adult patients were predominantly affected by OT especially in Asian populations where ingestion of unheated meat is not infrequent . Systemic symptoms of toxocariasis can appear as mild discomfort, classical visceral larva migrants presenting with severe general illness, or asymptomatic . Conversely, ocular symptoms of OT vary depending on the primary site involved and the immune response of the host . Chorioretinal granuloma with uveitis is considered a typical finding of OT . Although a definitive diagnosis for OT is made histologically by identifying the toxocara larva from a biopsy , it can be diagnosed clinically based on typical ocular findings in order to avoid the risks of biopsy . Additionally, laboratory work-ups such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or and eosinophilia play an auxiliary role in diagnosis . Although systemic eosinophilia is an important feature of systemic Toxocariasis, eosinophilia count is not usually elevated in OT patients .
OT can be easily misdiagnosed, when typical granuloma in the chorioretina is not presented. Several reports have indicated that toxocara can involve the ciliary body , lens , or optic nerve without granuloma , and it is challenging to diagnose OT in these cases.
In the present case, it was assumed that the patient ingested toxocara by eating unheated meat. The next-day myalgia represented visceral migrans syndrome. When he visited the clinic for the first time for his ocular symptoms, the general illness had already been resolved; hence, it was difficult to find an association between ocular inflammation and his systemic symptoms.
The whitish lesions we observed in the patient were interesting. The whitish plaques were in the superficial retina (Figs. 3 and 4) mimicking cotton wool spot. However, OCT depicted well demarcated oval shaped lesion in the RNF layer with posterior shadowing. The size of these plaques was about 100 to 150 μm in diameter, and larger than toxocara larvae or eggs. Although these lesions are different from typical granuloma that shows irregular margin in OCT [11, 12], they resolved after anti-toxocara medication, and appear to be granuloma caused by toxocara accompanying less inflammatory reaction.
As there was no report to compare the superiority of anthelminthic drug in OT, the standard treatment of anti-toxocariasis was administered using albendazole and systemic steroid following the previous report [8, 15, 16], and both retinal granuloma and scleritis were resolved successfully.
A patient with history of eating unheated meal presented with bilateral scleritis and retinal granuloma. Specific past history, positive serologic tests for toxocara, and treatment responses suggested that scleritis were manifestations of OT. Scleritis should be considered as one of manifestation of OT, and was managed with the standard anti-toxocariasis medication. Serologic exams for toxocariasis would be considered not only in typical features but also in other uveitis or scleritis, particularly when the patient has a related history.
BCVA, best corrected visual acuity; IOP, intraocular pressure; OCT, optical coherent tomography; OT, ocular toxocariasis; RNF, retinal nerve fiber
Availability of data and materials
All data supporting these findings is contained within this manuscript.
PKY have been involved in drafting the manuscript and made contributions to acquisition of data. PSW and BIS have made contributions to conception and design and helped to draft the manuscript. LJE have made contributions to conception and revise it critically for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this Case report. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The institutional board of Pusan National University Hospital approved the study, and it complied with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Rubinsky-Elefant G, Hirata CE, Yamamoto JH, Ferreira MU. Human toxocariasis: diagnosis, worldwide seroprevalences and clinical expression of the systemic and ocular forms. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104(1):3–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Molina-Prat N, Doctor P, et al. Clinical features and presentation of infectious scleritis from herpes viruses: a report of 35 cases. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(7):1460–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schnyder CC. Toxoplasmosis and ocular pathology. Schweiz Med Wochenschr Suppl. 1995;65:82S–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krist D, Wenkel H. Posterior scleritis associated with Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) infection. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(1):143–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fenolland JR, Bonnel S, Rambaud C, Froussart-Maille F, Rigal-Sastourne JC. Syphilitic Scleritis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2016;24(1):93–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hemady R, Sainz de la Maza M, Raizman MB, Foster CS. Six cases of scleritis associated with systemic infection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992;114(1):55–62.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ho YF, Yeh LK, Tan HY, et al. Infectious scleritis in Taiwan-a 10-year review in a tertiary-care hospital. Cornea. 2014;33(8):838–43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahn SJ, Ryoo NK, Woo SJ. Ocular toxocariasis: clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Asia Pacific allergy. 2014;4(3):134–41.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mansour AM, Abiad B, Boulos FI, Alameddine R, Maalouf FC, BuGhannam A, Hamam RN. Adult ocular toxocariasis mimicking ciliary body malignancy. Case reports in medicine. 2014;2014:368907. doi:10.1155/2014/368907.
- Ahn SJ, Woo SJ, Hyon JY, Park KH. Cataract formation associated with ocular toxocariasis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013;39(6):830–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jee D, Woo SJ, Hyon JY, Park KH. Clinical features of ocular toxocariasis in adult Korean patients. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2016;24(2):207–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahn SJ, Woo SJ, Jin Y, Chang YS, Kim TW, Ahn J, Hong ST. Clinical features and course of ocular toxocariasis in adults. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(6), e2938.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Finsterer J, Auer H. Neurotoxocarosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2007;49(5):279–87.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Woodhall D, Starr MC, Montgomery SP, Jones JL, Lum F, Read RW, Moorthy RS. Ocular toxocariasis: epidemiologic, anatomic, and therapeutic variations based on a survey of ophthalmic subspecialists. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(6):1211–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stürchler D, Schubarth P, Gualzata M, Gottstein B, Oettli A. Thiabendazole vs. albendazole in treatment of toxocariasis: a clinical trial. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;83:473–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Magnaval JF. Comparative efficacy of diethylcarbamazine and mebendazole for the treatment of human toxocariasis. Parasitology. 1995;110(5):529–33.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar