This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Diarrhea, CD4 counts and enteric infections in a hospital – based cohort of HIV-infected patients around Varanasi, India
© Attili et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 14 September 2005
Accepted: 01 March 2006
Published: 01 March 2006
As most of the studies in HIV patients with diarrhea were cross sectional, focusing on the etiological agents, we are reporting data on the rate of diarrhea, associations between diarrhea and CD4 counts and variation in frequency of identifying a pathogen with consistency of diarrhea and duration in a prospective hospital based study.
Stool specimens were obtained between Jan 2001 and April 2003 from HIV infected adults with diarrhea presenting to Infectious Disease clinic, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. In all patients with diarrhea, specimens were examined by microscopy and cultures to identify pathogens.
During the study, 630 person years of observations with diarrhea were analyzed. 140 stool samples were collected representing 43% of episodes of reported diarrhea. Positivity of finding a pathogen from watery stools and formed stools were 40%&24% respectively (p < 0.01) probably due to associated inflammation is more in watery diarrhea. Patients having chronic diarrhea are 2.25 (95%CI 1.52–2.81) times at more risk of developing other opportunistic infections compared to those who don't have. However this is not true with the acute diarrhea where risk of harboring the opportunistic infections remain same.
Diarrhea was most strongly associated with low CD4 counts. Over two-thirds of diarrheal episodes were undiagnosed, suggesting that unidentified agents or primary HIV enteropathy are important causes of diarrhea in this population. There is a strong negative association between duration of diarrhea and CD4 levels
HIV/AIDS is a major problem in India with more than 6 million cases by the end of 2005 . HIV patients are prone to develop a panorama of diseases during their lifetime. Among them diarrhea is a significant cause of morbidity observed in majority of studies [2–5]. In fact it is the 2nd leading cause of hospital visits in developing nations and makes its place in top 10 worldwide [1–11]. The information on the cause of diarrhea and the possibility of isolation of pathogens has largely come from various cross sectional studies [3–11]. Expectedly infectious etiologies lead the list in developing nations in contrast to non-infectious etiologies in developed nations. In most of these studies the emphasis was on chronic diarrhea, acute episodes and risk factors being largely unaddressed. As of now this data is available from two large prospective community based cohort studies that gave information on rates of diarrhea and isolation of enteric pathogens in developed nations [12, 13]. These studies demonstrated a strong negative association between diarrhea and CD4 counts. Similarly they also found that majority of the samples didn't contain any pathogens, and wherever pathogens found, protozoan infections dominated over the bacterial causes. There are many reports regarding frequency of various pathogens causing diarrhea from different parts of India [3, 4, 14]. Some studies also demonstrated regional variability of pathogen , as well as changing trends of etiology in the same population (from infectious to non infectious) . But reports regarding correlation of the diarrhea with CD4 levels, impact of CD4 levels on isolation of pathogen were not studied in India. The present study populations, North Indians form a distinct ethnic group owing to their typical dietary, living habits, low nutritional status, endemic E. histolytica infection and inherently low CD4 levels . So we planned conduct a study to look for the rate of diarrhea, associations between diarrhea and CD4 counts and variation in frequency of identifying a pathogen with stool characters.
Baseline characters of the patients
(n = 102)
(n = 111)
(n = 257)
Male female ratio
Total duration of symptoms (in months)
Mean time of AIDS diagnosis(in months)
4.57 ± 0.74
8.03 ± 0.513
2.74 ± 0.81
Mean CD4 levels
Patients on HAART
Patients with AIDS (CDC definition)
% with lower Socio economic status
Major symptoms in different CD4 groups
CD4 <200 (n = 212)
CD4 200–500 (n = 117)
CD4 >500 (n = 46)
Definition of diarrhea
Symptoms reported by patients were used to classify diarrhea into acute and chronic episodes. Diarrhea was defined as the passage of two or more unformed stools in past 24 hr. An episode of diarrhea was classified as acute if it lasted for less than a month and provided the patient is diarrhea free in the preceding month. Episode was defined as chronic when diarrhea lasted more than a month, or was intermittent and recurrent over a period of at least two months with diarrheal symptoms for at least half this time. Sub-sequent diarrhea was classified as a new episode if there was a diarrhea-free interval of at least one month. If the duration of symptoms did not fit any of these definitions the case was excluded from the analysis.
Stool samples were requested from patients who presented with diarrhea at the time of consultation as soon as possible. In cases wherever possible the patients were requested to collect the sample before starting any medication and bring it to our analysis. In patients, where samples were collected, 66% gave samples at the hospital. In the remaining patients, they were collected at home. Samples were collected in a wide mouth container at home and transported to us by the patients themselves. Due to poor access to transportation, in majority of the cases it took an average of 12 hours before the samples were brought to us. However we did not perform the routine bacterial cultures, owing to non feasibility (low education status, low motivation, economic and many other reasons) Information on the duration of symptoms of diarrhea was recorded in the case records maintained at ID clinic. In those cases where the information was incomplete the case were excluded from analysis.
In all patients with chronic diarrhea, fresh fecal specimens from patients were examined directly. A small portion of the stool was emulsified in a drop of saline on a microscope slide and another portion in a drop of Lugol's iodine on another slide. These wet smears were examined under ×100, and ×400 magnifications for intestinal parasites. Isospora belli oocyst was easily identified as oval granular structures averaging 20–30 μ in length and10–20 μ in width. The presence of Isospora & Cryptosporidium oocysts was confirmed by examining the stool specimen by modified Ziel – Neelsen's stain. The smears (fixed in methanol for 1 minute) were flooded with 4% carbol fuchsin for 15 minutes without heating. Decolorizing was done by 1% acid alcohol for 5 minutes. Counter staining was done with 0.4%malachite green for 1 minute. Microscopic examination was carried out under low power, (×100), high power (×400) and oil immersion (×1000) lenses. Intense red, pink or faint pink, round or oval structures were especially searched for and brought to focus under higher magnification for confirmation and detailed study of their morphology. All specimens were subjected to stool cultures to identify bacterial causes.
HIV – 1 status of the patients was confirmed by ELISA method using two different antigens .
CD4/Viral load estimation
Immuno phenotype of lymphocytes was carried out by FACS count (Becton Dickinson, Singapore (BD). Viral load was not done due to economic constraints. CD4 counts were measured routinely in the first visit and during the follow-up visits. For this study, each time a participant provided a stool sample their most recent CD4 count, was used for the analysis. Stool samples from patients without CD4 information, were excluded from the analysis.
Analyses were performed using SPSS version 13.0 statistical software. The relationship between the CD4 count of the patient who provided the stool sample and duration of diarrheal symptoms were assessed using the t-test. A univariate analysis was performed to look at the association between organisms isolated and diarrhea. An adjusted analysis, using a logistic regression model, was then performed in to look at the association between organisms isolated and patients' CD4 counts (dichotomized in two groups: <200 and = 200 cells/μl).
Relationship between cd4, symptoms and enteric pathogens.
No. of patients
CD4 (Mean ± SEM)
% of stools containing organism
112.35 ± 55.73
49.4 ± 22.6
Unadjusted odds ratio, for the association between diarrhea, organisms and CD4 counts.
Out of 140 stool samples collected in 300 episodes of diarrhea 42 protozoal pathogens were identified. When compared to the 8% incidence of the protozoal causes of chronic diarrhea in general population, it appears that the incidence of the protozoal etiology in HIV patients is more. In the remaining 98 episodes, 56 patients were on medications that were known to have diarrhea as one of the side effects (nelfinavir, amoxycillin, erythromycin etc...), however as the patients were taking these medications since long time further assumptions for its etiological role were not attempted.
Cd4 counts and type of diarrhea
CD4 counts and type of diarrhea
Type of diarrhea
No of Pt
Patients having chronic diarrhea are 2.25 times at more risk of developing other opportunistic infections compared to those who don't have. However this is not true with the acute diarrhea where the risk of harboring the opportunistic infections remain the same.
Durations of symptoms and CD 4 levels
Laboratory isolation of organisms
Pathogenic organisms were isolated from 42 stool samples (30%). Protozoa accounted for 85.7% (36/42) of all pathogens. E. histolytica was the most frequently encountered pathogen found in 24 stool isolates followed by opportunistic pathogens cryptosporidium spp. in 8 samples and Isospora in 4 samples. Candida was isolated in 4 diarrhea samples. All the patients, where Candida was isolated failed to respond to antibiotics but did show improvement with fluconazole. In two samples helminthes were isolated. Bacterial cause of diarrhea was not found in the present study. We did not study the viral cause of diarrhea. Ascaris, and hook worm were isolated in two patients with chronic diarrhea who also responded to albandazole therapy. Due to absence of facilities for diagnosis of microsporidiasis, which also respond to albandazole it was difficult make any comments on the causation of diarrhea by the helminthes.
Diarrhea is well recognized as an important component of HIV related morbidity. It has been included in the clinical case definition of AIDS by NACO & WHO [1, 17]. In this hospital based study of HIV patients living in and round Varanasi, India, we tried to look for the etiology, risk factors, and rates of diarrhea. It has confirmed that diarrhea is common and there is a strong inverse association with CD4 counts particularly for chronic diarrhea. Similarly a few factors like CD4 levels, stool characters, and duration of diarrhea will affect the isolation rates of pathogens.
Majority of the study population were in advanced stage of HIV disease (AIDS), confirmed by clinical staging and CD4 level. In India the HIV prevalence in males is higher than females  as in the present study. Thus early HIV infection and females were under represented in the present study. Age, Sex, CD4 levels and clinical stage are similar in patients with diarrhea who did and did not give stool samples, suggesting no selection bias (therefore no disproportionate representation of particular group of individuals).
Rate of diarrhea
Our rate of 849 diarrheal episodes per 1000 PYO is substantially greater than the 142 diarrheal episodes observed in the Swiss cohort, supporting the view that HIV-associated diarrheal disease occurs more commonly in India . Our rate represents a minimum burden of diarrhea, as episodes were only counted if a patient came to the clinic. Diarrhea which was self-limiting or which responded to over-the-counter medication would not have come to our attention.
Rates of identification of organism from stool sample were less compared to other studies [2–5, 8–24],. The pathogens were more frequently associated with chronic rather than acute diarrhea. Despite using the best possible diagnostic techniques, the isolation rates did not exceed 34–73% in chronic diarrheas and the results were much depressing in acute diarrhea where the isolation were 14–51% [3–5]. Our results are towards the lower ranges reported in the literature.
Effect of CD4
It was observed that the CD4 cell count influenced the cause of diarrhea as well as the diagnostic yield . The diagnostic yield of stool analysis is low in patients with higher CD4 cell counts. The probable reasons as felt by the authors was
1. Effective HAART helps eradicating opportunistic protozoal infection, and associated with the influx of CD4 positive cells into the lamina propria.
2. As the opportunistic infections causing diarrhea in AIDS become less common, other gastrointestinal diseases, which are common in young age group, like inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease, irritable bowel syndrome and idiopathic steatorrhoea are presently leading the list of etiological agents.
3. Variety of unknown/unidentified infections or HAART-related toxicities.
It is observed in the present study that 28.9% of chronic and 15.7% of acute diarrheal episodes were experienced by patients with CD4 counts of = 200 cells/μl, indicating that it is a frequent problem even in less advanced stages of HIV. One of the reasons could be regional immunosuppression as suggested by Schneider et al . They found, loss of CD4 cells in intestinal mucosa of the patients with diarrhea, which were more pronounced than peripheral CD4 levels and their relation is quite variable. The mucosal immunity, an important factor to prevent diarrhea is therefore variable even in patients with good immunity (i.e. peripheral CD4>200). We did not perform the mucosal CD4 levels thus any comments on the mucosal immune status based on blood CD4 levels would be in appropriate. But we can presume that probably the low mucosal immunity could be a cause of diarrhea in patients with high CD4 levels.
There was considerable variation in the isolation of pathogens from formed and watery diarrhea .The probability of finding a pathogen from watery and formed stools were 42% and 16% respectively in present study not very different from the literature (40&24%). As most of the studies did not take stool characteristics into consideration, it is difficult to compare the present study with other studies. However there is little doubt that nature of stool specimen examined bears a good correlation (p < 0.01) in identifying a pathogen, watery diarrhea giving a better yield of organism than a semi formed stool. The greater positivity could be due to greater shedding, more inflammatory response and greater virulence of the pathogens causing watery diarrhea.
Comparison with other studies
Results of the present study compared to other studies
Langewer et al4 (1996) (n = 77)
Joshi et al3 (2002) (n = 110)
Mohandas et al14 (2002) (n = 36)
Present study (2003) (n = 140)
1. Widespread community use of drugs, (co-trimoxazole, metronidazole etc..), for the treatment of diarrhea prior to hospital visit.
2. Low education status leading to non production of sample till patient becomes symptom free.
3. More percent of formed stools in the present study
4. Unavailability of diagnostic facilities for microsporidiasis and viral causes.
As none of our patients had fever, neutrophils in the stool sample or other features of acute inflammation, probability of a bacterial cause is less likely, though in presence of the immunosuppression these features could often be absent. However we don't deny improper sample collection and transportation for the same. In 65 of 82 samples of patients with chronic diarrhea, and in 3/16 patients with acute diarrhea the patients were on co- trimoxazole for P. carnii prophylaxis which might be responsible for at least some cases of pathogen negative diarrhea. A well designed study, with proper sample collection and transportation, might enlighten us in this aspect.
Pathogen negative diarrhea
Pathogen negative diarrhea is likely to include cases caused by organisms not identified in this study, by the HIV virus itself and perhaps to a lesser extent by malignancies.
Common antibiotic prescription
The role of antibiotics in the management of diarrhea is currently unclear, particularly in those individual whose diarrhea is chronic and not self-limiting. Current recommendations of giving co-trimoxazole in chronic diarrhea based on the frequency of Isospora are probably inappropriate in this population. However in view of the frequent E histolytica infections, which still are sensitive to the co-trimoxazole it can still, be continued. But in the areas were resistance to co-trimoxazole was documented, metronidazole will be a better alternative.
1. North Indian population had higher diarrheal episodes(849PYO)
2. Protozoal etiologies dominate over others in this population
3. Watery stools had a better diagnostic yield
4. Strong inverse relation was observed between acute diarrhea, short duration of symptoms and pathogen negative diarrhea with CD4 levels.
We great fully acknowledge, Mr. AVS Prakash, Infosys, Chennai, and Dr Sowmya Karantha, Resident Dept of Pediatrics, VIMS, Bellary India for the help with the statistical analysis
- NACO report on AIDS in India. 2004, [http://www.naco.gov.in]
- Satya Suresh Attili V, Shyam Sundar, Singh VP, Madhukar Rai: Validity of existing CD4+ classification in north Indians, in predicting immune status. J infection. 2005, 51: 41-46. 10.1016/j.jinf.2004.08.022.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Joshi M, Chowdhary AS, Dalar PJ, Maniar JK: Prevalence of intestinal parasitic pathogens in HIV-seropostive individuals in Northern India. Natl Med J India. 2002, 15 (2): 72-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lanjewar DN, Rodrigues C, Saple DG, Hira SK, Dupont HL: Cryptosporidium, isospora and Stronglyloides in AIDS. Natl Med J India. 1996, 9 (1): 17-19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mwachari C, Batchelor BIF, Paul J, Waiyaki PG, Gilks CF: Chronic diarrhea among HIV-infected adult patients in Nairobi, Kenya. J Infect. 1998, 37: 48-53. 10.1016/S0163-4453(98)90561-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khumalo-Ngwenya B, Luo NP, Chintu C, Sunkutu R, Sakala-Kazembe F, Baboo KS, Mathewson J, Zumla A: Gut parasites in HIV sero-positive Zambian adults with diarrhea. East Afr Med J. 1994, 71: 379-383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sewankambo N, Mugerwa RD, Goodgame R, Carswell JW, Moody A, Lloyd G, Lucas SB: Enteropathic AIDS in Uganda. An endoscopic, histological and microbiological study. AIDS. 1987, 1: 9-13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mengesha B: Cryptosporidiosis among medical patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia. East Afr Med J. 1994, 71: 376-378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tawanda Gumbo, Steedman Sarbah, Innocent T Gangaidzo, Ynes Ortega, Charles R Sterling, Angela Carville, Saul Tzipori, Peter M Wiest: Intestinal parasites inpatients with diarrhea and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zimbabwe. AIDS. 1999, 13: 819-821. 10.1097/00002030-199905070-00011.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tarimo DS, Killewo JZJ, Minjas JN, Msamanga GI: Prevalence of intestinal parasites in adult patients with enteropathic AIDS in north-eastern Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 1996, 73: 397-399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Batchelor BIF, Kimari JN, Brindle RJ: Microbiology of HIV associated bacteraemia and diarrhoea in adults from Nairobi, Kenya. Epidemiol Infect. 1996, 117: 139-144.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Navin TR, Weber R, Vugia DJ, Rimlan D, Roberts JM, Addis DG, Visvesvara GS, Wahlquist SP, Hogan SE, Gallager LE, Juranek DD, Schartz DA, Wilcox CM, Stewart JM, Thompson SE III, Bryan RT: Declining CD4 T-lymphocyte counts are associated with increased risk of enteric parasitosis and chronic diarrhea: Results of a 3-year longitudinal study. J AIDS Hum Retrovirol. 1999, 20: 154-159.Google Scholar
- Weber R, Ledergerber B, Zbinden R, Altwegg M, Pfyffer GE, Spycher MA, Briner J, Kaiser L, Opravil M, Meyenberger C, Flepp M: Enteric infections and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. Arch Intern Med. 1999, 159: 1473-1480. 10.1001/archinte.159.13.1473.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohandas , Sehgal R, Sud A, Malla N: Prevalence of intestinal parasitic pathogens in HIV-seropostive individuals in Northern India. Jpn Jn Inf Dis. 2002, 55: 83-84.Google Scholar
- Lynen L: Clinical aids care guidelines for resource poor settings. medecins sans frontieires, belgium, luxembourg. Edited by: Biot M. 2001, 8.6-8.16.Google Scholar
- Call SA, Heudebert G, Saag M, Wilcox CM: The changing etiology of chronic diarrhea in HIV patients, with CD4 less than 200/mm3. Am J Gastroenterology. 2000, 95 (11): 3142-3146. 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.03285.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): interim proposal for a WHO staging system for HIV infection and disease. Wkly Epidem Rec. 1990, 65: 221-224.Google Scholar
- Rabeneck L, Crane MM, Risser JM: Effect of HIV transmission category and CD4 count on the occurrence of diarrhea in HIV patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993, 88 (10): 1720-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Laughton BE, Druckman DA, Vernon A, Quinn TC, Polk BF, Modlin JF: Prevalence of enteric pathogens in homosexual men with and without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gastroenterology. 1988, 94: 984-93.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roger L Shapiro, Kumar Lata, Phillips-Howard Penny, Joy G Wells, Joy G Wells: Antimicrobial resistant bacterial diarrhea in rural, western Kenya. JID. Edited by: Penny Adcock, John Brooks, Marta-Louise Ackers, John Benjamin Ochieng, Eric Mintz, Susanne Wahlquist, Peter Waiyaki, Laurence Slutsker. 2001, 183: 1701-1704.Google Scholar
- Smith PD, Lane HC, Gill VJ, Manischewitz JF, Quinnan GV, Fauci AS: Intestinal infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): Etiology and response to therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1988, 108: 328-33.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ravera M, Reggiori A, Riccioni G, Ciantia F, Vison R: Prevalence of Microsporidium, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli among AIDS patients with chronic diarrhoea admitted in Hoima Hospital, Uganda. 1995, IX International Conference on AIDS and STD in Africa. Kampala, (abstract TuB567)Google Scholar
- Lynen L: Clinical AIDS Care Guidelines for Resource Poor Settings. Medecins Sans Frontieires, Belgium, Luxembourg. Edited by: Biot M. 2001, 8.9-8.18.Google Scholar
- Gassama A, Sow PS, Fall F, Camara P, Philippe H, Gueye-N'Diay A: Ordinary and opportunistic enteropathogens associated with diarrhea in Senegalese adults in relation to human immunodeficiency virus serostatus. Int J Infect Dis. 2001, 5: 192-8. 10.1016/S1201-9712(01)90069-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Datta D, Gazzard B, Stebbing J: The diagnostic yield of stool analysis in 525 HIV-1 infected individual. J AIDS. 2003, 17 (11): 1711-1713. 10.1097/00002030-200307250-00023.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schneider T, Jahn H, Schmidt W, Riecken E, Zeitz M, Ullrich R: Loss ofCD4 cells in patients infected with HIV is more pronounced in mucosa than in Blood:. GUT. 1995, 37: 524-29.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/6/39/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.