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Table 1 N. gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility* to cefixime, ceftriaxone, and resistance to ciprofloxacin and penicillin in Switzerland, 1990–2012

From: Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Switzerland to Cefixime and Ceftriaxone: antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1990 and 2000 to 2012

  Cefixime Ceftriaxone Ciprofloxacin Penicillin
Year Tested, n# DS, n (%) (95% CI) Tested, n# DS, n (%) (95% CI) Tested, n# R, n (%) (95% CI) Tested, n# R, n (%) (95% CI)
1990 16 0 (0) (0–21) 16 0 (0) (0–21) 42 1 (2.4) (0–12) 42 9 (21.4) (10–37)
2000-2002 7 0 (0) (0–40) 7 0 (0) (0–40) 33 10 (30.3) (15–48) 33 4 (12.1) (3–28)
2003/2004 10 0 (0) (0–30) 10 0 (0) (0–30) 33 16 (48.5) (31–66) 33 13 (39.4) (23–58)
2005/2006 17 0 (0) (0–19) 32 0 (0) (0–11) 36 21 (58.3) (41–74) 31 7 (22.6) (10–41)
2007/2008 48 5 (10.4) (3.4-22) 85 2 (2.4) (0.3-8) 85 62 (72.9) (62–82) 84 25 (29.8) (20–41)
2009/2010 26 3 (11.5) (2.4-30) 43 2 (4.7) (0.5-16) 43 31 (72.1) (56–84) 43 7 (16.3) (7–30)
2011/2012 35 4 (11.4) (3.2-26) 46 0 (0) (0–8) 44 32 (72.7) (57–85) 44 10 (22.7) (11–38)
Total 159    239    317    311   
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval of the proportion; DS, decreased susceptibility; R, resistant.
  2. *Decreased susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone defined by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) >0.125 mg/L. Ciprofloxacin resistance defined by MIC >0.064 mg/L, and penicillin resistance defined by MIC >1.0/L or penicillinase-producing strains, according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST).
  3. #The 42 isolates from 1990 and the 66 isolates from 2000–2004 were stored at -70°C and subcultured in 2005 for testing for penicillin and ciprofloxacin; and in 2011 for cefixime and ceftriaxone. The 36 strains from 2005/2006, the 85 strains from 2007/2008, the 43 strains from 2009/2010, and the 44 strains from 2011/2012 were tested under routine conditions for penicillin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. In 2011 the viable strains were tested for cefixime. By the end of 2011, all strains were tested routinely for penicillin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefepime. This explains why the number of strains tested in each period differs for each antibiotic.