- Case report
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis treated with 32 gram liposomal amphotericin B and incomplete surgery: a case report
© Çagatay et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2001
- Received: 21 July 2001
- Accepted: 23 November 2001
- Published: 23 November 2001
Mucormycosis (or zygomycosis) is the term for infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales. Mucoraceae may produce severe disease in susceptible individuals, notably patients with diabetes and leukemia. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis most commonly manifests itself in the setting of poorly controlled diabetes, especially with ketoacidosis.
A 31-year-old diabetic man presented to the outpatient clinic with the following signs and symptoms: headache, periorbital pain, swelling and loss of vision in the right eye. On physical examination his right eye was red and swollen. There was periorbital cellulitis and the conjunctiva was edematous. KOH preparation of purulent discharge showed broad, ribbonlike, aseptate hyphae when examined under a fluorescence microscope. Cranial MRI showed involvement of the right orbit, thrombosis in cavernous sinus and infiltrates at ethmoid and maxillary sinuses. Mucormycosis was diagnosed based on these findings. Amphotericin B (AmBisome®; 2 mg/kg.d) was initiated after the test doses. Right orbitectomy and right partial maxillectomy were performed; the lesions in ethmoid and maxillary sinuses were removed. The duration of the liposomal amphotericin B therapy was approximately 6 months and the total dose of liposomal amphotericin B used was 32 grams. Liposomal amphotericin B therapy was stopped six months later and oral fluconazole was started.
Although a total surgical debridement of the lesions could not be performed, it is remarkable that regression of the disease could be achieved with medical therapy alone.
- Cavernous Sinus
- Maxillary Sinus
- Liposomal Amphotericin
Mucormycosis (or zygomycosis) is the term for infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales [1–4]. Mucoraceae may produce severe disease in susceptible individuals, notably patients with diabetes and leukemia. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis most commonly manifests itself in the setting of poorly controlled diabetes, especially with ketoacidosis. The causative organism in most cases is Rhizopus oryzae. Progression of the disease is usually rapid, although it may become indolent if ketoacidosis resolves. Because of the rapidity with which this disease progresses, prompt and aggressive therapy is essential [5–7]. Since the introduction of combined therapy with amphotericin B and surgery, more than 80% of the patients can be expected to survive [6–8]. Administration of amphotericin B is, however, associated with adverse effects that may prevent maintenance of effective doses . Because of this problem, amphotericin B has been inserted into liposomes. When the drug is administered in this form, adverse effects are less pronounced, even with administration of larger doses [10, 11]. Recent work has suggested that the new antifungal triazole, fluconazole may be of benefit in treating zygomycete infection [2, 3, 12]. We described a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis which was treated with surgery and a 6 month course of liposomal amphotericin B (a total of 32 gr) followed by a course of fluconazole.
The blood glucose levels was controlled with regular insulin. Amphotericin B (1 mg/kg.d) was initiated after the test doses. Seven days later, this regimen was replaced with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome®; 2 mg/kg.d) due to increase of creatinine level and side effects such as fever and chills. This resulted in normalization of creatinine level and disappearence of the side effects. After one week of this regimen, the dose of liposomal amphotericin B was raised up to 4 mg/kg/day. During the course of the treatment, the patient was closely monitored for signs and symptoms of drug toxicity, and tests for acute phase reactants (CRP, ESR) were performed.
After neurosurgical and otorhinolaryngological evaluation, the patient apted to receive medical therapy alone. Three months later, the patient was reevaluated. Because there was no regression of the lesions previously noted on MRI, the patient agreed to undergo surgery. Right orbitectomy, and right partial maxillectomy were performed; the lesions in ethmoid and maxillary sinuses were removed. The specimens obtained from sinuses were intraoperatively examined under a fluorescence microscope after treating the samples with KOH or fluorescence conjugated antibody, broad, ribbonlike, and aseptate hyphae were visualized.
The duration of the therapy was approximately 6 months, and the total dose of liposomal amphotericin B used was 32 grams. Although there has been previous reports on the use of Amphotericin B in various preparations such as lipid complex or colloidal dispersion, with a maximum total dose up to 73.6 grams in the treatment of invasive fungal infections [13–15], our case report is the first one in the literature where liposomal amphotericin B was administered in such a high dose (total 32 grams) over such a long period, i.e, 6 months. No adverse effect was detected during therapy. Creatinine and electrolyte levels (especially potassium) remained within normal ranges.
Although a total surgical debridement of the lesions could not be performed, it is remarkable that regression of the disease could be achieved with medical therapy alone. We could not find any recommendation in the literature on the duration of liposomal amphotericin B and use of fluconazole therapy. The optimal duration of antifungal therapy depends on the response of infection to treatment and success in resolving the underlying predisposing condition.
Written consent was obtained from the patient or their relative for publication of the patient's details.
- Rinaldi MG: Zygomycosis:. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1989, 3 (1): 19-41.Google Scholar
- Koçak R, Tetiker T, Koçak M, et al: Fluconazole in the treatment of three cases of mucormycosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995, 14: 559-561.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Selcen D, Seçmeer G, Aysun S, et al: Mucormycosis In a diabetic child and its treatment with fluconazole: A case report. Turkish J Pdr. 1995, 37: 165-168.Google Scholar
- Maury S, Lebianc T, Feuilhade M, Molina JM, Schaison G: Successful treatment of disseminated mucormycosis with liposomal amphotericin B and surgery in a child with leukemia. Clin Infect Dis. 1998, 26: 200-202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sugar AM: Mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 1992, 14 (Suppl 1): 126-129.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parfrey NA: Improved diagnosis and prognosis of mucormycosis. Medicine. 1986, 65: 113-123.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lim KK, Potts MJ, Warnock DW, et al: Another case report of rhinocerebral mucormycosis treated with liposomal amphotericin B and surgery. Clin Infect Dis. 1994, 18: 653-654.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ericsson M, Anniko M, Gustafsson H, et al: A case of chronic progressive rhinocerebral mucormycosis treated with liposomal amphotericin B and surgery. Clin Infect Dis. 1993, 16: 585-586.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gallis HA, Drew RH, Pickaed WW: Amphotericin B: 30 years of clinical experience. Rev Infect Dis. 1990, 12: 308-329.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meunier F: methods for delivery of antifungal agents. Rev Infect Dis. 1989, 11 (suppl 7): 1605-1612.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brajtburg J, Powderly WG, Kobayashi GS, Medoff G: Amphotericin B: delivery systems. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990, 34: 381-384.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Funada H, Miyake Y, Kanamori K, et al: Fluconazole therapy for pulmonary mucormycosis complicating acute leukemia. Jpn J Med. 1989, 28(2): 228-231.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moses AE, Rahav G, Barenholz Y, et al: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis treated with amphotericin B colloidal dispersion in three patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1998, 26: 1430-1433.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kline S, Larsen TA, Fieber L, et al: Limited toxicity of prolonged therapy with high doses of amphotericin B lipid complex. Clin Infect Dis. 1995, 21: 1154-1158.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walsh TJ, Hiemenz JW, Seibel NL, et al: Amphotericin B lipid complex for invasive fungal infections: analysis of safety and efficacy in 556 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 1998, 26: 1383-1396.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/1/22/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.