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Table 3 Population attributable fraction (PAF) proportions with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for exposures associated with increased campylobacteriosis risk, Australia, 2018–2019*

From: Risk factors for campylobacteriosis in Australia: outcomes of a 2018–2019 case–control study

Exposures Campylobacter PAF % (95% CI) C. jejuni PAF % (95% CI) C. coli PAF % (95% CI)
Medication exposures
 Proton-pump inhibitors 13 (8.3–18) 12 (6.3–16) 20 (7.8–32)
Poultry-related food exposures
 Ate any chickenb 42 (13–62) 42 (11–66) a
  Ate cooked chicken 36 (7.5–58) 36 (4.0–60) a
  Ate undercooked chicken 6.8 (4.5–9.5) 7.0 (4.9–10) 7.0 (2.2–15)
 Ate cooked chicken kebabs 7.0 (3.1–11) 5.7 (1.3–10)
 Ate duck 1.8 (0.1–3.7)
Food exposures
 Ate delicatessen ham, chicken, turkey, or beef 31 (0.0–54)
Ate chicken pâté 6.0 (0.0–11)
Animal exposures
 Dog aged less than 6 months 9.6 (6.5–13) 11 (6.9–14)
 Visited a private farm in 7 days prior to illness 4.7 (0.4–7.9)
 Fed pet dog raw chicken necks 4.6 (0.4–8.5)
 Contact with chicken faeces in 7 days prior to illness 3.1 (1.2–5.2) 2.9 (0.8–5.1)
 Cat aged less than 6 months 2.4 (0.3–4.5)
  1. *Calculated from adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from final multivariable logistic regression model ‘–’ variable was not included in model. aVariable not significant. bCooked and undercooked chicken combined