Skip to main content

Table 2 Results of multivariable logistic regression analysis showing adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for exposures associated with an increased or decreased campylobacteriosis risk, Australia, 2018–2019

From: Risk factors for campylobacteriosis in Australia: outcomes of a 2018–2019 case–control study

Exposures Campylobacter aOR (95% CI) n = 1006 C. jejuni aOR (95% CI) n = 899 C. coli aOR (95% CI) n = 638
Medication exposures in 4 weeks prior to illness
 Antibiotics 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0.3 (0.2–0.6) 0.3 (0.0–0.9)
 Proton-pump inhibitors 2.8 (1.9–4.3) 2.6 (1.7–4.2) 3.8 (1.9–7.8)
Poultry-related food exposures in 7 days prior to illness
 Ate duck 3.1 (1.1–9.7)
 Ate pre-cooked chicken 0.4 (0.2–0.9)
 Ate cooked chicken kebabs 2.2 (1.4–3.8) 2.0 (1.1–3.5)
 Chicken consumption    
  None Ref. Ref. Ref.
  Ate cooked chicken only 1.7 (1.1–2.8) 1.7 (1.0–3.0) 2.0 (0.8–6.1)
  Ate undercooked chicken 70 (13–1296) 85 (15–1627) 60 (6.6–1408)
Other food exposures in 7 days prior to illness
 Ate at a café or restaurant 0.7 (0.5–1.0)
 Ate at a fast food or takeaway outlet* 0.6 (0.5–0.9)
 Ate delicatessen ham, chicken, turkey or beef 1.8 (1.0–3.3)
 Ate chicken pâté 6.1 (1.5–25)
 Ate minced beef or veal dishes 0.7 (0.5–0.9)
 Beef consumption    
  None Ref.
  Ate cooked beef only 0.8 (0.5–1.1)
  Ate undercooked beef 0.3 (0.1–0.7)
 Lamb consumption    
  None Ref. Ref.
  Ate cooked lamb only 0.6 (0.4–0.8) 0.6 (0.5–0.9)
  Ate undercooked lamb 0.2 (0.0–0.9) 0.4 (0.0–1.8)
 Pork consumption    
  None Ref.
  Ate cooked pork only 0.7 (0.5–0.9)
  Ate undercooked pork 3.6 (0.1–97)
Animal exposures
 Contact with chicken faeces in 7 days prior to illness 4.3 (1.7–13) 4.3 (1.5–14)
 Visited a private farm in 7 days prior to illness 2.1 (1.1–3.7)
 Fed pet dog raw chicken necks 1.8 (1.0–3.2)
 Age of pet cat    
  No cat Ref.
  Cat aged less than 6 months 3.8 (1.2–13)
  Cat aged more than 6 months 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
 Age of pet dog    
  No dog Ref. Ref.
  Dog aged less than 6 months 6.4 (3.4–12) 6.2 (3.2–12)
  Dog aged more than 6 months 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 1.2 (0.8–1.6)
Preparation exposures in 3 months prior to illness
 Cooked meat on barbecue 0.5 (0.3–0.8)
  1. *Excludes kebab shops. ‘–’ variable was not included in model