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Table 4 Impact of carbapenem resistance estimated by generalized linear models with random effect

From: Economic and clinical burden from carbapenem-resistant bacterial infections and factors contributing: a retrospective study using electronic medical records in Japan

Variables

Logistic regression

Log-linear regression†‡

 

Death

 

LOS

 

Cost

 
 

OR (95% CI)

P-value

Percentage change (95% CI)

P-value

Percentage change (95% CI)

P-value

CR infections (Reference: CS infections)

1.24 (0.72–2.11)

0.441

42.1% (29.1–55.2%%)

 < 0.001

50.4% (40.9–60.0%)

 < 0.001

Age (years) (Reference: 15–64)

      

65–74

1.40 (1.15–1.70)

 < 0.001

–13.7% (− 18.8––8.6%)

 < 0.001

–7.5% (− 11.9––3.2%)

 < 0.001

 ≥ 75

1.80 (1.51–2.15)

 < 0.001

–32.1% (− 36.9––27.3%)

 < 0.001

–23.5% (− 27.6––19.4%)

 < 0.001

Male (Reference: Female)

1.13 (1.01–1.26)

0.033

0.7% (− 3.1–4.4%)

0.728

–1.6% (− 4.7–1.6%)

0.334

BMI (kg/m.2) (Reference: < 18.5)

      

18.5–25

0.66 (0.59–0.75)

 < 0.001

–0.2% (− 4.5–4.0%)

0.911

9.0% (5.2–12.9%)

 < 0.001

 ≥ 25

0.55 (0.46–0.65)

 < 0.001

–1.4% (− 0.7–4.2%)

0.633

15.2% (10.5–19.9%)

 < 0.001

Immunosuppressive drug

2.04 (1.82–2.28)

 < 0.001

15.7% (11.9–19.4%)

 < 0.001

27.8% (24.6–30.9%)

 < 0.001

ICU

1.10 (0.97–1.26)

0.151

17.7% (13.2–22.2%)

 < 0.001

45.3% (41.8–48.8%)

 < 0.001

Surgical procedure

0.59 (0.52–0.66)

 < 0.001

–14.4% (− 18.7––10.1%)

 < 0.001

13.9% (10.2–17.6%)

 < 0.001

Pneumonia

2.15 (1.83–2.54)

 < 0.001

29.9% (24.7–35.0%)

 < 0.001

17.8% (13.2–22.4%)

 < 0.001

Sepsis

3.42 (2.90–4.04)

 < 0.001

14.5% (9.0–20.1%)

 < 0.001

18.1% (13.7–22.5%)

 < 0.001

UTI

0.61 (0.52–0.73)

 < 0.001

23.3% (18.0–28.7%)

 < 0.001

2.9% (− 2.0–7.7%)

0.253

Biliary infection

0.87 (0.70–1.07)

0.178

18.4% (11.7–25.2%)

 < 0.001

–0.1% (− 5.7–5.6%)

0.994

Death

6.3% (1.9–10.8%)

0.005

13.5% (10.0–17.0%)

 < 0.001

Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥ 1

1.50 (1.01–1.50)

 < 0.001

4.4% (− 0.7–9.6%)

0.091

7.5% (2.5–12.6%)

0.003

Antibiotics before culture test

1.05 (0.93–1.18)

0.474

27.7% (23.1–32.3%)

 < 0.001

32.2% (27.9–36.5%)

 < 0.001

  1. The impacts of carbapenem resistance infections were calculated against carbapenem susceptible infections as reference
  2. Continuous outcomes of the LOS and cost were log-transformed. The estimated coefficient β of the carbapenem resistance was transformed as percent change per one-unit increase
  3. a Adjusted for age, sex, BMI, CCI, immunosuppressive drugs, antibiotic use before culture test, ICU admission, operation, disease type, and death (if outcome was death, it was excluded from the model)
  4. b Hospitals were treated as a random effect
  5. BMI, body mass index; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CI, confidence interval; CR, carbapenem-resistant; CS, carbapenem-susceptible; ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of hospital stay; OR, odds ratio; UTI, urinary tract infection