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Table 4 Impact of carbapenem resistance estimated by generalized linear models with random effect

From: Economic and clinical burden from carbapenem-resistant bacterial infections and factors contributing: a retrospective study using electronic medical records in Japan

Variables Logistic regression Log-linear regression†‡
  Death   LOS   Cost  
  OR (95% CI) P-value Percentage change (95% CI) P-value Percentage change (95% CI) P-value
CR infections (Reference: CS infections) 1.24 (0.72–2.11) 0.441 42.1% (29.1–55.2%%)  < 0.001 50.4% (40.9–60.0%)  < 0.001
Age (years) (Reference: 15–64)       
65–74 1.40 (1.15–1.70)  < 0.001 –13.7% (− 18.8––8.6%)  < 0.001 –7.5% (− 11.9––3.2%)  < 0.001
 ≥ 75 1.80 (1.51–2.15)  < 0.001 –32.1% (− 36.9––27.3%)  < 0.001 –23.5% (− 27.6––19.4%)  < 0.001
Male (Reference: Female) 1.13 (1.01–1.26) 0.033 0.7% (− 3.1–4.4%) 0.728 –1.6% (− 4.7–1.6%) 0.334
BMI (kg/m.2) (Reference: < 18.5)       
18.5–25 0.66 (0.59–0.75)  < 0.001 –0.2% (− 4.5–4.0%) 0.911 9.0% (5.2–12.9%)  < 0.001
 ≥ 25 0.55 (0.46–0.65)  < 0.001 –1.4% (− 0.7–4.2%) 0.633 15.2% (10.5–19.9%)  < 0.001
Immunosuppressive drug 2.04 (1.82–2.28)  < 0.001 15.7% (11.9–19.4%)  < 0.001 27.8% (24.6–30.9%)  < 0.001
ICU 1.10 (0.97–1.26) 0.151 17.7% (13.2–22.2%)  < 0.001 45.3% (41.8–48.8%)  < 0.001
Surgical procedure 0.59 (0.52–0.66)  < 0.001 –14.4% (− 18.7––10.1%)  < 0.001 13.9% (10.2–17.6%)  < 0.001
Pneumonia 2.15 (1.83–2.54)  < 0.001 29.9% (24.7–35.0%)  < 0.001 17.8% (13.2–22.4%)  < 0.001
Sepsis 3.42 (2.90–4.04)  < 0.001 14.5% (9.0–20.1%)  < 0.001 18.1% (13.7–22.5%)  < 0.001
UTI 0.61 (0.52–0.73)  < 0.001 23.3% (18.0–28.7%)  < 0.001 2.9% (− 2.0–7.7%) 0.253
Biliary infection 0.87 (0.70–1.07) 0.178 18.4% (11.7–25.2%)  < 0.001 –0.1% (− 5.7–5.6%) 0.994
Death 6.3% (1.9–10.8%) 0.005 13.5% (10.0–17.0%)  < 0.001
Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥ 1 1.50 (1.01–1.50)  < 0.001 4.4% (− 0.7–9.6%) 0.091 7.5% (2.5–12.6%) 0.003
Antibiotics before culture test 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 0.474 27.7% (23.1–32.3%)  < 0.001 32.2% (27.9–36.5%)  < 0.001
  1. The impacts of carbapenem resistance infections were calculated against carbapenem susceptible infections as reference
  2. Continuous outcomes of the LOS and cost were log-transformed. The estimated coefficient β of the carbapenem resistance was transformed as percent change per one-unit increase
  3. a Adjusted for age, sex, BMI, CCI, immunosuppressive drugs, antibiotic use before culture test, ICU admission, operation, disease type, and death (if outcome was death, it was excluded from the model)
  4. b Hospitals were treated as a random effect
  5. BMI, body mass index; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CI, confidence interval; CR, carbapenem-resistant; CS, carbapenem-susceptible; ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of hospital stay; OR, odds ratio; UTI, urinary tract infection