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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression of behavioral factors and psychological factors for HIV testing in the preceding year among Sino-Vietnam border female sex workers, 2016–2018 (n = 5201)

From: Trends and associated factors in the uptake of HIV testing among female sex workers in Sino-Vietnam border areas in Guangxi, China: a cross-sectional study

Variables Total tested Cross-border migrant Vietnamese FSWs Chinese local FSWs
Tested COR (95% CI) p AOR (95% CI) p Tested COR (95% CI) p AOR (95% CI) p
Having adequate HIV-/AIDS-related knowledge
 Yes 2681 (96.40) 269 (47.36) 2.16 (1.25–3.73) 0.01 0.85 (0.41–1.80) 0.68 2412 (54.71) 1.15 (0.83–1.58) 0.40
 No 100 (3.60) 20 (29.41) 1   1   80 (51.28) 1  
Working venue type
 High-/Mid-tier 1425 (51.24) 138 (66.99) 3.75 (2.64–5.32)  < 0.001 5.11 (2.83–9.21)  < 0.001 1287 (50.47) 0.68 (0.61–0.77)  < 0.001 1.0 (0.84–1.20) 0.96
 Low-tier 1356 (48.76) 151 (35.12) 1   1   1205 (50.80) 1   1  
Age of sexual debut
 < 18 years 442 (15.89) 94 (51.37) 1.40 (0.99–1.97) 0.06 0.69 (0.43–1.09) 0.11 348 (52.97) 0.93 (0.79–1.10) 0.37
 ≥ 18 years 2339 (84.11) 195 (43.05) 1   1   2144 (54.86) 1  
Age of commercial sexual debut
 ≥ 18 years 2750 (98.89) 277 (45.19) 1   2473 (55.07) 1  
 < 18 years 31 (1.11) 12 (52.17) 1.32 (0.58–3.05) 0.51 19 (25.68) 0.28 (0.17–0.48)  < 0.001
Months of staying in the current residence
 ≥ 12 months 1626 (58.47) 95 (42.60) 0.66 (0.47–0.93) 0.02 1.1 (0.68–1.83) 0.68 1531 (65.60) 2.06 (1.80–3.67)  < 0.001 1.28 (1.08–1.52) 0.04
 6–11 months 322 (11.58) 16 (20.78) 0.23 (0.13–0.42)  < 0.001 0.56 (0.27–1.18) 0.13 306 (35.33) 0.59 (0.50–0.71)  < 0.001 0.58 (0.47–0.71)  < 0.001
 < 6 months 830 (29.85) 178 (52.98) 1   1   652 (48.01) 1   1  
Years of FSW experience
 ≥ 4 years 1450 (52.14) 79 (43.65) 0.90 (0.64–1.28) 0.57 1371 (57.92) 1.32 (1.18–1.49)  < 0.001 1.61 (1.38–1.88)  < 0.001
 < 4 years 1331 (47.86) 210 (46.15) 1   1121 (51.00) 1   1  
Consistent condom used in last commercial sex
 Yes 2742 (98.60) 280 (45.45) 1.02 (0.42–2.49) 0.97 2462 (55.09) 1.61 (0.99–2.62) 0.06 1.55 (0.83–2.87) 0.17
 No 38 (1.40) 9 (45.00) 1   29 (43.28) 1   1  
Consistent condom used in the previous month
 Yes 2540 (91.33) 236 (43.30) 1   1   2304 (54.21) 1   1  
 No 241 (8.67) 53 (58.24) 1.83 (1.17–2.86) 0.01 1.94 (1.07–3.53) 0.03 188 (59.68) 1.25 (0.10–1.58) 0.06 1.56 (1.15–2.11) 0.004
History of self-reported STIs
 Yes 154 (5.54) 14 (73.68) 3.48 (1.24–9.79) 0.02 4.25 (1.31–13.76) 0.02 140 (61.14) 1.33 (1.01–1.74)  < 0.001 1.07 (0.79–1.46) 0.79
 No 2627 (94.46) 275 (44.57) 1   1   2352 (54.24) 1   1  
Ilicit drug use
 Yes 52 (1.87) 3 (50.00) 1.20 (0.24–6.01) 0.82 49 (64.47) 1.52 (0.95–2.44) 0.08
 No 2729 (98.13) 286 (45.40) 1   2443 (54.42) 1  
Serving clients in a fixed venue
 Yes 2514 (90.40) 281 (46.68) 2.84 (1.27–6.39) 0.01 1.08 (0.39–3.04) 0.88 2233 (56.23) 1.66 (1.40–2.00)  < 0.001 1.44 (1.17–1.79) 0.001
 No 267 (9.60) 8 (23.53) 1   1   259 (43.60) 1   1  
Having received free AIDS education and condom distribution services in the past year
 Yes 2762 (99.32) 284 (47.33) 5.57 (2.14–14.53)  < 0.001 1.77 (0.58–5.39) 0.32 2478 (55.37) 6.74 (3.80–11.95)  < 0.001 2.93 (1.92–2.67)  < 0.001
 No 19 (15.18) 5 (13.89) 1   1   14 (15.56) 1   1  
Having received peer education services in the past year
 Yes 1820 (65.44) 243 (59.27) 5.69 (3.90–8.32)  < 0.001 1.1 (0.59–2.08) 0.76 1577 (69.47) 3.43 ( 3.04–3.88)  < 0.001 2.26 (1.92–2.66)  < 0.001
 No 961 (34.56) 46 (20.35) 1   1   915 (39.86) 1   1  
Number of clients in the last month
 < 60 1772 (63.72) 192 (48.73) 1   1   1580 (57.69) 1   1  
 ≥ 60 1009 (36.28) 97 (40.08) 0.70 (0.51–0.97) 0.03 1.30 (0.85–1.98) 0.24 912 (49.95) 0.73 ( 0.65–0.82)  < 0.001 1.66 (1.41–1.94)  < 0.001
Average age of male clients
 ≥ 50 years 820 (29.49) 68 (48.23) 1.16 (0.79–1.68) 0.45 752 (69.05) 2.23 (1.93–2.57)  < 0.001 1.03 (0.85–1.25) 0.76
 < 50 years 1961 (70.51) 221 (44.65) 1   1740 (50.06) 1   1  
Having regular, non-commercial sexual partners
 Yes 2329 (83.75) 15 (44.12) 0.94 (0.47–1.90) 0.87 437 (71.75) 2.35 (1.95–2.83)  < 0.001 2.10 (1.63–2.62)  < 0.001
 No 452 (16.25) 274 (45.51) 1   2055 (51.95) 1   1  
Having regular, commercial sexual partners
 Yes 1737 (62.46) 205 (50.74) 1.80 (1.30–2.53)  < 0.001 1.59 (1.03–2.46) 0.04 1532 (60.82) 1.76 (1.56–1.98)  < 0.001 1.46 (1.25–1.70)  < 0.001
 No 1044 (37.54) 84 (36.21) 1   1 960 (46.92) 1  
Clients' average payment for commercial sex
 < 100 RMB 1174 (42.22) 196 (52.83) 2.07 (1.50–2.87)  < 0.001 2.40 (1.36–3.68) 0.001 978 (59.56) 1.37 (1.21–1.55)  < 0.001 0.81 (0.67–0.97) 0.02
 ≥ 100 RMB 1607 (57.78) 93 (35.09) 1   1   1514 (51.80) 1   1  
Perception of risk for HIV infection
 High level 363 (13.05) 41 (50.00) 1   1   322 (49.31) 1    
 Mid level 2091 (75.19) 238 (47.22) 0.89 (0.56–1.43) 0.64 1.00 (0.58–1.73) 1 1853 (56.67) 1.34 (1.14–1.59) 0.001
 Low level 327 (11.76) 10 (20.00) 0.25 (0.11–0.57) 0.001 0.98 (0.36–2.67) 0.97 317 (49.38) 1.10 (0.80–1.25) 0.98
Perception of vulnerability to HIV/STIs
 Yes 2220 (79.83) 276 (50.00) 5.46 (2.96–10.10)  < 0.001 2.43 (1.17–5.05) 0.02 1944 (59.56) 2.02 (1.78–2.30)  < 0.001 1.72 (1.45–2.03)  < 0.001
 No 561 (20.17) 13 (15.48) 1   1   548 (42.12) 1   1  
Fearing their families knowing about their sex work
 Yes 1880 (67.60) 198 (56.09) 2.69 (1.95–3.74)  < 0.001 0.81 (0.50–1.33) 0.41 1682 (62.25) 2.10 (1.90–2.42)  < 0.001 1.56 (1.34–1.81)  < 0.001
 No 901 (32.40) 91 (32.16) 1   1   810 (43.48) 1   1  
  1. COR crude odds ratio; AOR adjusted odds ratio; CI confidence interval