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Table 3 Characteristics and risk factors of PCR-confirmed diagnosis

From: Behavioral–biological surveillance of emerging infectious diseases among a dynamic cohort in Thailand

  Positive test (n = 61) Negative test (n = 617) p-value
Gender    
 Male 41 (67%) 248 (40%)  < 0.0001
 Female 20(33%) 369 (60%)  
Age group in years    
 < 10 26 (43%) 27 (4%)  < 0.0001
 10–19 9 (15%) 25 (4%)  
 20–39 19 (31%) 117 (19%)  
 40–59 3 (5%) 237 (39%)  
 60–79 4 (6%) 196 (32%)  
 > 80 0 (0%) 12 (2%)  
Education    
 None 20 (33%) 38 (6%)  < 0.0001
 Primary school 19 (31%) 325 (53%)  
 Secondary school 13 (21%) 153 (25%)  
 College/university/professional 9 (15%)%) 101 (16%)  
Primary livelihood   
 Child/student 36 (59%) 51 (8%)  < 0.0001
 Construction 1 (2%) 20 (3%)  
 Crop production 11 (18%) 101 (16%)  
 Extraction of minerals, gas, oil, timer 1 (2%) 51 (8%)  
 Homemaker/unemployed 2 (3%) 81 (13%)  
 Non-animal business 9 (15%) 263 (43%)  
 Military 1 (2%) 1 (< 1%)  
 Zoo/sanctuary animal health care 0 (0%) 34 (5%)  
 Rancher/farmer animal production business 0 (0%) 2 (< 1%)  
 Nurse, doctor, traditional healer, community health worker 0 (0%) 11 (2%)  
 Forager/gatherer/non-timber forest product collector 0 (0%) 2 (< 1%)  
Length of time living at location (in years)   
 < 1 5 (8%) 12 (2%)  < 0.0001
 1–5 19 (31%) 40 (6%)  
 5–10 26 (43%) 140 (23%)  
 > 10 11 (18%) 425 (69%)  
Travelled    
 Yes 41 (67%) 304 (49%) 0.007
 No 20 (33%) 313 (51%)  
Food storage for the household   
 Yes, with covers 58 (95%) 607(98%) 0.06
 Yes, without covers 2 (3%) 3 (< 1%)  
 No 1 (2%) 7 (1%)  
Drinking water treated   
 Yes 58 (95%) 402 (65%)  < 0.0001
 No 3 (5%) 215 (35%)  
Number of people in dwelling  
 None 0 (0%) 2 (< 1%) 0.07
 1–5 38 (62%) 465 (75%)  
 6–9 21 (34%) 142 (23%)  
 10 and above 2 (3%) 8 (1%)  
Having animal contact   
 Yes 54 (89) 561 (91%) 0.54
 No 7 (11%) 56 (9%)  
Having animal contact excluding dogs and cats  
 Yes 44 (72%) 352 (57%) 0.02
 No 17 (28%) 265 (43%)  
Self-reported unusual symptoms last year  
 Yes 29 (48%) 189 (31%) 0.007
 No 32 (52%) 428 (69%)  
Symptoms last year in other people you live with  
 Yes 20 (33%) 103 (17%) 0.002
 No 41 (67% 514 (83%)