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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of commercially insured children aged < 18 years with AOM episodes, by PCV period (1998–2018)

From: Incidence of acute otitis media in children in the United States before and after the introduction of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines during 1998–2018

Perioda Pre-PCV7 Early PCV7 Late PCV7 Early PCV13 Late PCV13
(1998–1999) (2001–2005) (2006–2009) (2011–2013) (2014–2018)
Total number of children with AOM, Nb 237,100 2,388,239 4,226,586 4,320,277 4,157,822
Age, mean (SD)c,d 4.82 (4.56) 4.63 (4.44) 4.65 (4.43) 4.89 (4.49) 4.93 (4.58)
 < 2 years, % 31.1% 31.5% 30.9% 28.6% 29.2%
 2–4 years, % 26.7% 28.3% 28.7% 28.6% 28.2%
 5–17 years, % 42.2% 40.2% 40.4% 42.8% 42.6%
Male, % 51.8% 52.0% 52.1% 52.1% 52.1%
Region      
 Northeast, % 17.7% 10.5% 10.7% 17.4% 17.5%
 North Central, % 26.3% 23.9% 27.2% 25.9% 22.1%
 South, % 40.4% 43.1% 48.7% 36.7% 44.4%
 West, % 6.0% 21.1% 12.8% 17.1% 14.8%
 Missing/unknown, % 9.6% 1.5% 0.6% 2.9% 1.2%
Urbanicity      
 Urban, % 70.3% 80.8% 83.2% 82.7% 83.1%
 Rural, % 20.0% 17.8% 16.2% 14.3% 11.9%
 Missing, % 9.6% 1.4% 0.6% 2.9% 4.9%
Health plan types      
 HMO/EPO, % 10.6% 23.2% 16.2% 14.3% 10.2%
 PPO/POS, % 57.1% 66.4% 76.0% 69.4% 64.5%
 CDHP/HDHP, % 0.0% 1.2% 2.8% 9.0% 20.5%
 FFS, % 31.9% 6.6% 1.6% 0.9% 1.3%
 Missing, % 0.4% 2.6% 3.3% 6.3% 3.5%
  1. AOM acute otitis media, CDHP consumer directed health plan, EPO exclusive provider organization, FFS fee-for-service, HDHP high-deductible health plan, HMO health maintenance organization, PCV pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, POS point of service, PPO preferred provider organization, SD standard deviation
  2. aPatients' demographic characteristics and risk factors were firstly determined by each calendar year and then combined by PCV periods, assuming each year has a distinct patient population
  3. bFor each calendar year, patients' demographic characteristics were determined at the index episode, which was defined as the first AOM episode in the given calendar year
  4. cPatients' month and day of birth was imputed as July 1st for all patients. Age at onset was calculated as the difference between condition start date and imputed birth date
  5. dStandard deviations for age in each vaccine period were calculated using the pooled standard deviation of the samples in relevant years