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Table 4 Predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among participants (n = 4227)

From: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among different population groups in China: a national multicenter online survey

Variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
No Hesitancy (n = 3566) Hesitancy (n = 661) P OR* (95%CI*) P
Age (years), (\(mean\pm SD)\) 33.59 \(\pm\) 10.04 29.92 \(\pm\) 8.48  < 0.001 0.974 (0.956–0.993) 0.006
Gender, n (%)
 Male 1219 (34.2) 190 (28.7) 0.006 1.000  
 Female 2347 (65.8) 471 (71.3)   1.331 (1.050–1.687) 0.018
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Han 3169 (88.9) 596 (90.2) 0.325
 Other 397 (11.1) 65 (9.8)  
Residence place, n (%)
 Urban 3085 (86.5) 535 (80.9)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Rural 481 (13.5) 126 (19.1)   0.959 (0.710–1.295) 0.785
Marital status, n (%) 0.822
 Single 1392 (39.0) 352 (53.3)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Married 2102 (58.9) 302 (45.7)   1.039 (0.745–1.449) 0.820
 Others 72 (2.1) 7 (1.0)   0.774 (0.285–2.107) 0.617
Education level, n (%)
  ≤ High school 208 (5.8) 52 (7.9) 0.046 1.000  
 College and above 3358 (94.2) 609 (92.1)   0.771 (0.503–1.181) 0.232
Population groups 0.779
 General population 342 (9.6) 92 (13.9)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Students 573 (16.1) 180 (27.2)   1.219 (0.834–1.781) 0.306
 Medical workers 2307 (64.7) 349 (52.8)   1.140 (0.801–1.624) 0.466
 Public health professionals 344 (9.6) 40 (6.1)   1.177 (0.704–1.966) 0.535
Household income (past 1 year), n (%) 0.344
  > 350,000 116 (3.3) 34 (5.1) 0.001 1.000  
 110,000–350,000 1230 (34.5) 198 (30.0)   0.621 (0.362–1.063) 0.082
 50,000–100,000 1562 (43.8) 273 (41.3)   0.627 (0.370–1.065) 0.084
  ≤ 40,000 658 (18.5) 156 (23.6)   0. 675 (0.386–1.179) 0.167
Ever smoking, n (%)
 No 3156 (88.5) 578 (87.4) 0.436
 Yes 410 (11.5) 83 (12.6)  
Ever drinking, n (%)
 No 3027 (84.9) 549 (83.1) 0.231
 Yes 539 (15.1) 112 (16.9)  
COVID-19 test results, n (%) 0.581
 Positive 22 (0.6) 17 (2.6)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Negative 2669 (74.8) 429 (64.9)   0.631 (0.256–1.558) 0.318
 Haven’t tested 875 (24.5) 215 (32.5)   0.617 (0.249–1.531) 0.298
Do you agree that vaccines can protect you from diseases?
 No 268 (7.5) 150 (22.7)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 3298 (92.5) 511 (77.3)   0.404 (0.301–0.543)  < 0.001
Do you agree that you will get all vaccines that National Immunization Program or government recommended?
 No 654 (18.3) 268 (40.5)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 2912 (81.7) 393 (59.5)   0.783 (0.619–0.991) 0.042
Have you ever hesitated to get vaccination?
 No 2551 (71.5) 281 (42.5)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 1015 (28.5) 380 (57.5)   1.656 (1.302–2.106)  < 0.001
Have you ever refused to get vaccination?
 No 3117 (87.49) 436 (66.0)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 449 (12.6) 225 (34.0)   1.340 (1.022–1.756) 0.034
Have you ever hesitated or refused to be get Pneumococcal Vaccine? 0.042
 No 2516 (70.6) 312 (47.2)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Ever hesitated 784 (22.0) 257 (38.9)   1.450 (1.083–1.941) 0.013
 Ever refused 266 (7.5) 92 (13.9)   1.340 (0.862–2.083) 0.193
Have you ever hesitated or refused to get Influenza Vaccine? 0.805
 No 2525 (70.8) 346 (52.3)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Ever hesitated 781 (21.9) 222 (33.6)   0.939 (0.698–1.262) 0.674
 Ever refused 260 (7.3) 93 (14.1)   0.870 (0.563–1.344) 0.531
The General Vaccine Hesitancy Scale scores
 \(m\pm SD\) 19.12 \(\pm\) 7.91 25.46 \(\pm\) 8.52  < 0.001 1.043 (1.029–1.056)  < 0.001
Concerns about infection with COVID-19
\(m\pm SD\) 9.77 \(\pm\) 2.05 10.10 \(\pm\) 2.05 0.001 1.086 (1.032–1.143) 0.002
Do you agree that COVID-19 epidemic is a severe problem affecting the health of the community?
 No 962 (27.0) 217 (32.8) 0.002 1.000  
 Yes 2604 (73.0) 444 (67.2)   0.946 (0.741–1.208) 0.656
Do you agree that COVID-19 will be a great threat to your health if you are infected?
 No 377 (10.6) 93 (14.1) 0.009 1.000  
 Yes 3189 (89.4) 568 (85.9)   1.212 (0.856–1.714) 0.279
Do you agree that you will get COVID-19 vaccine if doctors recommend?
 No 171 (4.8) 241 (36.5)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 3395 (95.2) 420 (63.5)   0.176 (0.132–0.234)  < 0.001
Do you agree that the advice of your family members or friends will affect your intention of getting COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 2260 (63.4) 271 (41.0)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 1306 (36.6) 290 (59.0)   1.533 (1.212–1.940)  < 0.001
Do you agree that you have no need of getting COVID-19 vaccine because you are healthy?
 No 3209 (90.0) 438 (66.3)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 357 (10.0) 223 (33.7)   1.938 (1.495–2.512)  < 0.001
Do you need transparent information about COVID-19 vaccine development, efficacy and safety?
 No 557 (15.6) 141 (21.3)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 3009 (84.4) 520 (78.7)   0.722 (0.535–0.973) 0.032
Do you have doubts about the source of information about the COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 2788 (78.2) 297 (44.9)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 778 (21.8) 364 (55.1)   2.157(1.697–2.742)  < 0.001
Have you ever received negative information about getting the COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 1725 (48.4) 251 (38.0)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 1841 (51.6) 410 (62.0)   1.563 (1.229–1.986)  < 0.001
Would you like to get the COVID-19 vaccine after receiving the negative information about it?
 No 1131 (31.7) 467 (70.7)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 2435 (68.3) 194 (29.3)   0.315 (0.249–0.398)  < 0.001
Do you agree that the time costs in waiting for the vaccination or staying at the clinic will be a barrier for you to get COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 2658 (74.5) 390 (59.0)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 908 (25.) 271 (41.0)   1.137 (0.870–1.487) 0.348
Do you agree that the environment of the clinic will be a barrier for you to get COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 2166 (60.7) 298 (45.1)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 1400 (39.3) 363 (54.9)   1.286 (0.986–1.679) 0.064
Do you agree that the cost of going to the clinic will be a barrier for you to get COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 2561 (71.8) 367 (55.5)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 1005 (28.2) 294 (44.5)   1.097 (0.839–1.434) 0.498
Have you gotten emergency COVID-19 vaccination for some reasons?
 No 2343 (65.7) 500 (75.6)  < 0.001 1.000  
 Yes 1223 (34.3) 161 (24.4)   0.807 (0.626–1.040) 0.097