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Table 3 Comparison of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and potential factors among different population groups

From: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among different population groups in China: a national multicenter online survey

Variables Medical workers Students General population Public health professionals P
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Have COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy
 No 2307 (86.9) 573 (76.1) 342 (78.8) 344 (89.6)  < 0.001
 Yes 349 (13.1) 180 (23.9) 92 (21.2) 40 (10.4)  
Concerns about infection with COVID-19
\(m\pm SD\)   9.83 \(\pm\) 2.10 9.80 \(\pm\) 2.13 10.06 \(\pm\) 1.79 9.56 \(\pm\) 1.88 0.007
Do you agree that COVID-19 epidemic is a severe problem affecting the health of the community?
 No 698 (26.3) 242 (32.1) 146 (33.6) 93 (24.2)  < 0.001
 Yes 1958 (73.7) 511 (67.9) 288 (66.4) 291 (75.8)  
Do you agree that COVID-19 will be a great threat to your health if you are infected?
 No 269 (10.1) 108 (14.3) 47 (10.8) 46 (12.0) 0.012
 Yes 2387 (89.9) 645 (85.7) 387 (89.2) 338 (88.0)  
Do you agree that you will get COVID-19 vaccine if doctors recommend?
 No 221 (8.3) 101 (13.4) 68 (15.7) 22 (5.7)  < 0.001
 Yes 2435 (91.7) 652 (86.6) 366 (84.3) 2435 (94.3)  
Do you agree that the advice of your family members or friends will affect your intention of getting COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 1721 (64.8) 319 (42.4) 237 (54.6) 254 (66.1)  < 0.001
 Yes 935 (35.2) 434 (57.6) 197 (45.4) 130 (33.9)  
Do you need transparent information about COVID-19 vaccine development, efficacy and safety?
 No 456 (17.2) 142 (18.9) 62 (14.3) 38 (9.9) 0.001
 Yes 2200 (82.8) 611 (81.1) 372 (85.7) 346 (90.1)  
Do you have doubts about the source of information about the COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 2064 (77.7) 437 (58.0) 276 (63.6) 308 (80.2)  < 0.001
 Yes 592 (22.3) 316 (42.0) 158 (36.4) 76 (19.8)  
Have you ever received negative information about getting the COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 1260 (47.4) 373 (49.5) 203 (46.8) 140 (36.5)  < 0.001
 Yes 1396 (52.6) 380 (50.5) 231 (53.2) 244 (63.5)  
Would you like to get the COVID-19 vaccine after receiving the negative information about it?
 No 932 (35.1) 357 (47.4) 205 (47.2) 104 (27.1)  < 0.001
 Yes 1724 (64.9) 396 (52.6) 229 (52.8) 280 (72.9)  
Do you agree that the time costs in waiting for the vaccination or staying at the clinic will be a barrier for you to get COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 2033 (76.5) 444 (59.0) 290 (66.8) 281 (73.2)  < 0.001
 Yes 623 (23.5) 309 (41.0) 144 (33.2) 103 (26.8)  
Do you agree that the environment of the clinic will be a barrier for you to get COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 1708 (64.3) 331 (44.0) 208 (47.9) 217 (56.5)  < 0.001
 Yes 948 (35.7) 422 (56.0) 226 (52.1) 167 (43.5)  
Do you agree that the costs of going to the clinic will be a barrier for you to get COVID-19 vaccine?
 No 2011 (75.7) 376 (49.9) 271 (62.4) 270 (70.3)  < 0.001
 Yes 645 (24.3) 377 (50.1) 163 (37.6) 114 (29.7)  
Do you agree that you have no need of getting COVID-19 vaccine because you are healthy?
 No 2364 (89.0) 582 (77.3) 354 (81.6) 347 (90.4)  < 0.001
 Yes 292 (11.0) 171 (22.7) 80 (18.4) 37 (9.6)  
Have you gotten emergency COVID-19 vaccination for some reasons?
 No 1610 (60.6) 638 (84.7) 373 (85.9) 222 (57.8)  < 0.001
 Yes 1046 (39.4) 115 (15.3) 61 (14.1) 162 (42.2)