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Table 4 Principles and recommendations of empirical use of antibacterial agents for SBP and infections other than SBP in patients with liver cirrhosis or liver failure

From: Evaluation of the current guidelines for antibacterial therapy strategies in patients with cirrhosis or liver failure

  1. Colour coding—yellow: combination regimen; red: recommendation provided without evidence level and strength
  2. SBP spontaneous bacterial infections, CPGs clinical practice guidelines, EASL European Association for the Study of the Liver, KASL the Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, CMA Chinese Medical Association, AASLD the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, G3s the third generation cephalosporins, BLBLIs β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, CARs carbapenems, FQs fluoroquinolones, MET metronidazole, GPB-MDR gram positive bacteria multidrug-resistant, CA-SBP community-acquired spontaneous peritonitis, HCA-SBP healthcare-associated spontaneous peritonitis, N-SBP nosocomial spontaneous peritonitis, HCA healthcare associated, DAP daptomycin, LNZ linezolid, CTX cefotaxime, CRO ceftriaxone, TIM ticarcillin–clavulanic acid, TZP piperacillin–tazobactam, IPM-SIS imipenem–cilastatin, MEM meropenem, ETP ertapenem, BIA biapenem, OFX ofloxacin, AMC amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, CIP ciprofloxacin, MDR multidrug-resistant, NG not given
  3. aMET should be combined with cefazolin/cefuroxime/cefotaxime/ceftriaxone/fluoroquinolones
  4. bMET should be combined with ceftazidime/cefepime/fluoroquinolones
  5. cMET should be combined with ceftazidime/cefepime, or tigecycline and colistin/polymyxin in some cases
  6. dIn the absence of recent β-lactam antibiotic exposure
  7. eIn the absence of recent fluoroquinolones antibiotic exposure
  8. fRecommendations of infections other than SBP
  9. gCarbapenem should be combined with glycopeptides or daptomycin or linezolid in areas with high prevalence of gram positive MDR bacteria