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Table 2 Plasma concentration of immune and endothelial dysfunction markers at clinical presentation according to the diagnosis

From: Clinical sign and biomarker-based algorithm to identify bacterial pneumonia among outpatients with lower respiratory tract infection in Tanzania

  All (n = 110) Bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (n = 17) Viral community-acquired pneumonia (n = 8) Unknown origin community-acquired pneumonia (n = 7) Bronchitis (n = 78) P value
Common biomarkers
CRP mg/l 22 (8–85) 17 (10–144) 14 (8–29) 43 (8–50) 23 (8–86) 0.661
PCT µg/l 0.09 (0.05–0.21) 2.62 (0.22–4.64) 0.06 (0.05–0.17) 0.05 (0.05–0.16) 0.05 (0.05–0.16) 0.000
Biomarkers of immune activation
sTREM-1 pg/ml 378 (240–566) 624 (513–1154) 437 (244–1164) 348 (222–471) 337 (221–479) 0.000
IL-6, pg/ml 17 (6–71) 582 (36–1677) 9 (8–190) 10 (1–15) 14 (5–41) 0.000
sTNFR-1, pg/ml 4791 (3036–7541) 9618 (5647–19,722) 6923 (3604–8385) 4242 (2964–9908) 4445 (2794–5961) 0.002
CHI3L-1, ng/ml 41 (13–137) 116 (40–538) 80 (17–378) 56 (12–80) 30 (12–110) 0.018
IL-8, pg/ml 15 (8–39) 16 (12–51) 18 (12–34) 11 (5–21) 14 (7–42) 0.556
IP-10, pg/ml 397 (104–915) 473 (265–915) 761 (177–2096) 276 (45–916) 380 (94–874) 0.411
Biomarkers of endothelial activation
Angpt-2, pg/ml 1795 (929–3396) 3181 (544–7719) 1130 (338–2887) 1728 (1120–2870) 1876 (940–2701) 0.345
sVCAM-1, ng/ml 1804 (1109–3257) 2998 (1934–4494) 1934 (1093–2248) 1549 (869–3640) 1575 (1035–2743) 0.038
sICAM-1, ng/ml 481 (229–880) 767 (370–933) 297 (250–1063) 165 (105–577) 481 (214–882) 0.132
Angpt-1, pg/ml 3529 (1262–9276) 3381 (944–9963) 13,389 (3103–22,903) 3157 (1622–7932) 3438 (1242–8267) 0.197
sVEGFR-1, pg/ml 183 (106–275) 233 (156–335) 172 (105–224) 83 (58–244) 183 (104–277) 0.116
  1. Bold values indicate a significant difference between the groups
  2. Data are median (interquartile range)
  3. Angpt-1 angiopoietin-1, Angpt-2 angiopoietin-2, CAP community-acquired pneumonia, CHI3L1 chitinase-3-like protein-1, CRP C-reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin-6, IL-8 interleukin-8, IP-10 interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10, LRTI lower respiratory tract infection, PCT procalcitonin, sICAM1 soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, sTNFR-1 soluble tumor necrosis factor-1, sTREM-1 soluble trigger receptor expressed on myeloid cells, sVCAM-1 soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, sVEGFR1 soluble variant of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1