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Table 4 Factors associated with unsuccessful outcomes

From: High rate of successful treatment outcomes among childhood rifampicin/multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Pakistan: a multicentre retrospective observational analysis

Variable Unsuccessful outcomes
No. (%)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
p-value Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
p-value
Gender
 Female 28 (17.5) Referent    
 Male 11 (20.8) 1.23 (0.57–2.69) 0.59   
Age (years)
 < 5 3 (21.4) Referent    
 5–9 5 (20.8) 1.04 (0.21–5.19) 0.96   
 10–14 31 (17.8) 1.27 (0.33–4.81) 0.72   
Baseline body weight
 Normal 15 (15.6) Referent    
 Below normal 24 (20.5) 1.39 (0.68–2.84) 0.36   
Co-morbidity
 No 37 (18.7) Referent    
 Yes 2 (13.3) 0.67 (0.14–3.09) 0.60   
Previous TB treatment
 No 15 (19.0) Referent    
 Yes 23 (18.4) 0.96 (0.47–1.98) 0.91   
 Unknown 1 (11.1) 0.53 (0.06–4.59) 0.56   
History of treatment with SLD
 No 36 (17.6) Referent   Referent  
 Yes 3 (37.5) 2.82 (0.64–12.32) 0.16 2.70 (0.55–13.29) 0.22
Type of drug-resistant TB
 Rifampicin resistant 17 (20.2) Referent    
 Multidrug resistant 22 (17.1) 0.81 (0.40–1.64) 0.55   
Site of DR-TB
 Ex-PTB 4 (15.4) Referent    
 Pulmonary TB 35 (18.7) 1.27 (0.41–3.91) 0.68   
Sputum smear grading
 Negative 6 (13.0) Referent    
 Scanty (1–9 AFB/100 HPF), + 1 (10–99 AFB/100 HPF) 18 (19.8) 1.64 (0.60–4.47) 0.33   
 + 2 (1–9 AFB/HPF), + 3 (> 9 AFB/100 HPF) 15 (19.7) 1.64 (0.59–4.58) 0.34   
Number of resistant drugs
 1 17 (20.5) Referent    
 2–4 14 (15.6) 0.71 (0.33–1.56) 0.40   
 > 4 8 (20.0) 0.97 (0.38–2.49) 0.95   
Resistant to all five first FLD
 No 33 (17.9) Referent    
 Yes 6 (20.7) 1.19 (0.45–3.16) 0.72  
Resistance to pyrazinamide
 No 24 (16.6) Referent    
 Yes 15 (22.1) 1.43 (0.69–2.93) 0.33   
Resistance to ethambutol
 No 26 (14.4) Referent    
 Yes 13 (24.1) 1.62 (0.76–3.44) 0.20   
Resistance to any SLD
 No 30 (18.4) Referent    
 Yes 9 (18.0) 0.97 (0.43–2.22) 0.94   
Resistance to fluoroquinolone
 No 30 (17.9) Referent    
 Yes 9 (20.0) 1.15 (0.50–2.64) 0.74   
Resistance to ethionamide  
 No 37 (17.8) Referent   
 Yes 2 (40.0) 3.08 (0.49–19.09) 0.22   
Treatment strategy
 Shorter treatment regimen 1 (6.7) Referent    
 Longer treatment regimen 38 (19.2) 3.32 (0.42–26.07) 0.25   
Use of isoniazid
 No 36 (18.9) Referent    
 Yes 3 (3.0) 0.64 (0.18–2.28) 0.49   
Use of ethambutol
 No 32 (22.7) Referent   Referent  
 Yes 7 (9.7) 0.37 (0.153–0.89) 0.02 0.36 (0.14–0.89) 0.02
Use of amikacin
 No 9 (32.1) Referent   Referent  
 Yes 30 (16.2) 0.41 (0.17–0.99) 0.04 0.51 (0.20–1.28) 0.15
Use of capreomycin
 No 37 (18.6) Referent    
 Yes 2 (16.7) 0.89 (0.19–4.22) 0.88   
Use of levofloxacin
 No 9 (16.1) Referent    
 Yes 30 (19.1) 1.23 (0.54–2.79) 0.61   
Use of moxifloxacin
 No 31 (19.5) Referent    
 Yes 8 (14.8) 0.72 (0.31–1.67) 0.44   
Use of para-amino salicylic acid
 No 23 (16.1) Referent    
 Yes 16 (22.9) 1.55 (0.76–3.16) 0.23   
Use of linezolid
 No 32 (17.3) Referent    
 Yes 7 (25.0) 1.59 (0.62–4.06) 0.32   
Use of bedaquiline
 No 39 (18.8) Referent    
 Yes Non-computable    
Use of clofazimine
 No 36 (18.7) Referent    
 Yes 3 (15.0) 1.59 (0.62–4.06) 0.32   
Use of delamanid
 No 38 (18.2) Referent    
 Yes 1 (25.0) 1.50 (0.15–14.82) 0.72
  1. AFB acid fast bacilli, DR-TB drug-resistant tuberculosis, FLD first line anti-TB drugs, HPF high power field, SLD second line anti-TB drugs