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Table 2 Factors and outcomes associated with listeriosis and non-listeriosis

From: The seasonality, steroid use, and lower ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte associated with bacteremia of Listeria monocytogenes in Japan from 2010 to 2019: a case–control study

Characteristics Cases (n = 11) Controls (n = 26) Odds Ratio
(95% confidence interval)
P value
Male 7 (63.6) 16 (61.5) 0.914 (0.212–3.939) 0.603
Female 4 (36.4) 10 (38.5)   
Age, ≥ 70 years 8 (72.7) 25 (96.1) 0.107 (0.01–1.175) 0.070
Warm season 10 (90.9) 14 (53.8) 8.571 (0.954–77.008) 0.033
Underlying disease, n (%)     
 Diabetes 2 (18.3) 7 (26.9) 0.603 (0.104–3.507) 0.454
 CKD 3 (27.3) 7 (26.9) 1.018 (0.209–4.965) 0.639
 Cirrhosis 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0)   0.297
 Solid tumor 3 (27.3) 3 (11.5) 2.875 (0.479–17.239) 0.236
 Hematogical malignancy 0 (0.0) 1 (3.8) 0.694 (0.559–0.862) 0.703
 Organ transplant 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Autoimmune disease 3 (27.3) 3 (11.5) 2.875 (0.479–17.239) 0.236
 HIV 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Lung disease 1 (9.1) 5 (19.2) 0.420 (0.043–4.087) 0.41
 Stroke 0 (0.0) 5 (19.2) 0.656 (0.511–0.843) 0.151
 Active gastrointestinal disease 4 (36.4) 3 (11.5) 4.381 (0.785–24.453) 0.099
 Coronary artery disease 4 (36.4) 12 (46.2) 0.667 (0.156–2.843) 0.429
 Hypertension 4 (36.4) 15 (57.7) 0.419 (0.098–1.794) 0.235
 Arrhythmia 4 (36.4) 5 (19.2) 2.4 (0.500–11.519) 0.241
 Intravascular device 3 (27.3) 4 (15.4) 2.063 (0.376–11.309) 0.339
 Chronic heart failure 2 (18.3) 7 (26.9) 0.603 (0.104–3.507) 0.454
 Perinatal 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0)   0.297
Medicine, n (%)     
 Steroid 6 (54.5) 5 (19.2) 5.040 (1.085–23.419) 0.042
 MTX 2 (18.3) 0 (0.0)   0.083
 Adalimumab 1 (9.1) 0 (0.0)   0.297
 Acid inhibitor 10 (90.9) 20 (76.9) 3.0 (0.317–28.434) 0.31
 Oral iron 1 (9.1) 3 (11.5) 0.767 (0.071–8.299) 0.659
Symptoms, n (%)     
 Fever 11 (100.0) 21 (80.8) 1.524 (1.186–1.958) 0.151
 Diarrhea 4 (36.4) 2 (7.7) 6.857 (1.031–45.604) 0.051
 Bloody stool 2 (18.3) 2 (7.7) 2.667 (0.325–21.872) 0.341
 Central nervous system manifestation 2 (18.3) 0 (0.0)   0.083
Blood test, mean (Min–Max, SD)     
 Neutrophil, /μL 7396 (399*-14,789, 4108) 10,225 (2892–23,016, 5298)   0.146
 Lymphocyte, /μL 1024 (399*-2293, 595) 709 (99–1519, 394)   0.264
 Neutrophil/Lymphocyte 9.46 (1–19, 5.662) 18.44 (5–56, 13.032)   0.015
 Hb, g/dL 11.2 (8.5–14.2, 1.6) 11.6 (6.0–15.6, 2.4)   0.921
 Platelet, × 103/μL 177.5 (32.0–429, 127.0) 169.8 (56.0–332.0, 85.6)   0.821
 AST, U/L 32.0 (14–51, 14.526) 29.48 (16–49, 10.638)   0.618
 ALT, U/L 19.09 (4–40, 11.22) 22.10 (7–58, 13.870)   0.584
 LDH, U/L 326.45 (220–620, 119.277) 305.9 (159–764, 145.781)   0.347
 CK, U/L 150.67 (19–514, 155.482) 70.56 (21–209, 52.415)   0.152
 Na, mmol/L 135.82 (128–145, 5.231) 138.77 (131–150, 4.364)   0.096
 CRP, mg/dL 8.735 (0.6–17.9, 5.64) 12.008 (0.3–31.5, 9.5385)   0.418
 BS, mg/dL 154.9 (75–420, 116) 132.84 (65–193, 38.322)   0.353
Entry of causative microorganisms     
 CRBSI 0 (0.0) 6 (23.1)   0.099
 UTI 0 (0.0) 6 (23.1)   0.099
 IE 0 (0.0) 2 (7.7)   0.488
 Cholecystitis 0 (0.0) 1 (3.8)   0.703
 Iliopsoas muscle abscess 0 (0.0) 1 (3.8)   0.703
 Pacemaker infection 0 (0.0) 1 (3.8)   0.703
 Unknown 11 (100.0) 9 (34.6)    < 0.001
 Admission to ICU 2 (18.3) 5 (19.2) 0.933 (0.152–5.739) 0.661
 No administration of effective for empiric therapy 6 (54.5) 10 (38.5)   0.16
 30 day mortality, n (%) 2 (18.3) 5 (19.2) 0.844 (0.137–5.220) 0.619
  1. SD standard deviation; CKD chronic kidney disease; HIV human immunodeficiency virus; MTX methotrexate; Hb hemoglobin; AST aspartate aminotransferase; ALT alanine aminotransferase; LDH lactase dehydrogenase; CK creatinine kinase; Na sodium; CRP C-reactive protein, BS blood sugar; CRBSI catheter related blood stream infection; UTI urinary tract infection; IE infective endocarditis; ICU intensive care unit