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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: The impact of early target attainment of vancomycin in critically ill patients with confirmed Gram-positive infection: A retrospective cohort study

Variables Before propensity score (PS) matching After propensity score (PS) matching
Overall (326) Early (110) Late (216) P-value Overall (210) Early (105) Late (105) P-value
Age (years), Mean (SD) 57.5 (20.17) 66.9 (16.55) 52.7 (20.19)  < .0001* 58.5 (18.41) 66.8 (16.65) 50.2 (16.29)  < .0001*
Male, n (%) 234 (72.0) 68 (62.4) 166 (76.9) 0.0061^^ 147 (70.3) 66 (63.5) 81 (77.1) 0.0304^^
Weight (kg), Mean (SD) 71.6 (20.47) 72.7 (22.87) 71.0 (19.17) 0.8841^ 72.3 (22.18) 72.8 (23.17) 71.9 (21.27) 0.9928^
Body mass Index, Mean (SD) 27.2 (16.77) 29.6 (27.10) 26.0 (7.13) 0.1379^ 28.0 (20.42) 29.8 (27.72) 26.3 (8.16) 0.3033^
Admission category  
 Medical, n (%) 179 (55.1) 78 (71.6) 101 (46.8) 0.0018^^ 124 (59.3) 75 (72.1) 49 (46.7) 0.0054**
 Surgical, n (%) 44 (13.5) 9 (8.3) 35 (16.2) 28 (13.4) 7 (6.7) 21 (20.0)
 Trauma, n (%) 47 (14.5) 9 (8.3) 38 (17.6) 26 (12.4) 9 (8.7) 17 (16.2)
 Burn, n (%) 8 (2.5) 1 (0.9) 7 (3.2) 3 (1.4) 1 (1.0) 2 (1.9)
 Neuro, n (%) 35 (10.8) 8 (7.3) 27 (12.5) 21 (10.0) 8 (7.7) 13 (12.4)
 Transplant, n (%) 12 (3.7) 4 (3.7) 8 (3.7) 7 (3.3) 4 (3.8) 3 (2.9)
Comorbidity  
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 142 (49.1) 62 (64.6) 80 (41.5) 0.0002^^ 93 (50.5) 59 (64.8) 34 (36.6) 0.0001^^
 Hypertension, n (%) 154 (52.0) 66 (66.0) 88 (44.9) 0.0006^^ 102 (53.7) 62 (65.3) 40 (42.1) 0.0014^^
 Chronic Liver disease, n (%) 27 (10.3) 7 (8.2) 20 (11.2) 0.4533^^ 14 (8.6) 7 (8.8) 7 (8.4) 0.9426^^
 Heart failure, n (%) 48 (17.8) 28 (30.4) 20 (11.2)  < 0.0001^^ 37 (21.5) 27 (31.0) 10 (11.8) 0.0021^^
 Cerebrovascular accident, n (%) 31 (11.4) 16 (16.8) 15 (8.5) 0.0384^^ 26 (14.7) 16 (17.8) 10 (11.5) 0.2378^^
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), n (%) 16 (6.2) 8 (9.3) 8 (4.7) 0.1442^^ 13 (7.9) 8 (9.9) 5 (6.0) 0.3612^^
Severity score within 24 h of ICU admission
 Modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (mSOFA), Median (Q1, Q3) 5.5 (4.00, 7.00) 5.0 (4.00, 8.00) 6.0 (4.00, 7.00) 0.9329^ 5.0 (4.00, 7.00) 5.0 (4.00, 8.00) 5.0 (4.00, 7.00) 0.6435^
 APACHE II Score, Median (Q1, Q3) 14.5 (9.00, 20.00) 15.0 (11.00, 21.00) 14.0 (9.00, 20.00) 0.2706^ 15.0 (11.00, 21.00) 15.0 (11.00, 21.00) 13.0 (9.00, 20.00) 0.2249*
Baseline within 24 h of ICU admission
 Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Median (Q1, Q3) 13.0 (7.00, 15.00) 11.0 (6.00, 15.00) 14.0 (7.00, 15.00) 0.2239^ 13.0 (8.00, 15.00) 11.0 (6.00, 15.00) 14.0 (9.00, 15.00) 0.0606^
 Mechanical ventilation within 24 h of ICU admission, n (%) 143 (44.3) 42 (38.9) 101 (47.0) 0.3663** 90 (43.5) 42 (40.8) 48 (46.2) 0.3091**
 AKI within 24 h of ICU admission, n (%) 47 (14.5) 14 (12.8) 33 (15.3) 0.5559^^ 40 (19.2) 20 (19.2) 20 (19.2)  > 0.9999^^
 Blood glucose level (BGL) (mmol/L), Mean (SD) 10.2 (5.18) 10.5 (4.87) 10.0 (5.40) 0.2967^ 10.7 (4.95) 10.6 (4.85) 10.8 (5.17) 0.8611^
 Lactic acid (mmol/L), Mean (SD) 2.7 (2.40) 2.4 (1.69) 2.9 (2.70) 0.7442^ 2.7 (2.26) 2.4 (1.71) 2.9 (2.69) 0.5299^
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L), Mean (SD) 104.0 (73.53) 114.6 (77.44) 98.6 (71.07) 0.0162^ 105.8 (70.31) 114.7 (78.28) 97.0 (60.49) 0.0586^
 Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Mean (SD) 8.5 (6.49) 9.8 (6.69) 7.9 (6.31) 0.0020^ 8.6 (6.17) 9.5 (6.35) 7.6 (5.87) 0.0070^
 Hematocrit, Mean (SD) 0.4 (0.08) 0.3 (0.09) 0.4 (0.08) 0.1298^ 0.3 (0.09) 0.3 (0.09) 0.4 (0.09) 0.2032^
 Albumin (g/L), Mean (SD) 30.8 (6.19) 29.5 (6.14) 31.4 (6.12) 0.0096* 30.7 (6.27) 29.5 (6.14) 31.8 (6.21) 0.0071*
 Platelets count (1000 × 10^6/L), Mean (SD) 243.7 (141.00) 256.9 (148.17) 237.1 (137.20) 0.2522^ 244.7 (148.49) 256.2 (148.29) 233.4 (148.52) 0.1837^
 Alanine transaminase (ALT), Mean (SD) 68.4 (142.17) 46.1 (97.51) 79.2 (158.46) 0.0887^ 61.7 (128.95) 47.0 (98.51) 75.9 (151.96) 0.2515^
 Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Mean (SD) 94.1 (232.29) 90.9 (314.56) 95.7 (178.18) 0.0537^ 101.3 (271.91) 92.5 (317.86) 109.9 (219.27) 0.0564^
 International normalized ratio (INR), Mean (SD) 1.3 (0.53) 1.4 (0.65) 1.3 (0.46) 0.5287^ 1.3 (0.60) 1.4 (0.66) 1.3 (0.55) 0.8566^
 Total Bilirubin, Mean (SD) 37.5 (86.08) 33.8 (72.26) 39.5 (92.83) 0.1594^ 34.0 (68.26) 33.8 (72.73) 34.2 (63.84) 0.1658^
 White blood cells (WBCs), Mean (SD) 13.0 (8.17) 12.5 (7.80) 13.3 (8.36) 0.4028^ 13.0 (7.72) 12.6 (7.96) 13.4 (7.50) 0.2366^
 Maximum temperature (T max)), Mean (SD) 37.8 (3.14) 37.9 (3.99) 37.8 (2.62) 0.2355^ 37.7 (2.92) 37.9 (4.09) 37.6 (0.80) 0.3100^
Vancomycin         
 Loading dose, n (%) 43 (13.2) 15 (13.8) 28 (13.0) 0.8410^^ 27 (12.9) 14 (13.5) 13 (12.4) 0.8159^^
 Maintenance dose (mg/kg/day), Mean (SD) 25.9 (12.16) 24.2 (11.10) 26.8 (12.62) 0.0909^ 26.2 (12.58) 24.3 (11.19) 28.1 (13.65) 0.0524^
 Initial level of vancomycin trough, Mean (SD) 8.1 (3.23) 11.7 (1.18) 6.3 (2.23)  < .0001* 9.0 (3.23) 11.7 (1.17) 6.3 (2.19)  < .0001*
  1. *T Test/^Wilcoxon rank sum test is used to calculate the P-value
  2. ^^Chi square/** Fisher’s Exact teat is used to calculate P-value