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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patient population at admission

From: IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein are related to disease severity and parasitemia during falciparum malaria

Characteristic Malaria HIV Malaria + HIV
N 61 58 70
Age, years 40 (18–79) 39 (22–84) 40 (20–65)
Sex, females (% (n)) 41 (25) 50 (29) 50 (35)
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 11.2 (3.2–17.0) 8.9 (2.9–15.2) 9.4 (2.5–15.7)
Leukocytes (× 109/L) 6.9 (1.3–15.5) 8.2 (0.3–25.4) 7.8 (0.9–21.8)
Platelets (× 109/L) 124 (11–452) 220 (13–682) 90 (8–330)
Se-Creatinine (µmol/L) 127 (57–357) 161 (41–873) 223 (62–1529)
Se-Glucose (mmol/L) 8.7 (3.6–40.5) 6.1 (3.3–10.6) 6.12 (1.5–27.0)
Liver failure (%)a 5 (3/61) 7 (4/57) 17 (12/70)
Coagulation disturbance (%)b 2 (1/61) 0 13 (9/70)
Cerebral affection (%)c 25 (15/61) 33 (19/58) 31 (22/70)
Systolic blood pressure 122 (70–240) 115 (90–160) 115 (80–170)
Respiratory rate 22 (12–68) 29 (12–56) 24 (16–42)
Case fatality rate (%) 1.7 (1/59) 27.8 (15/54) 13.0d (9/69)
Duration of symptoms in days (median) 4.2 (1–28) 7 (1–365) 8.6 (1–180)
Severe HIVe (%) n.a 83 (48/58) 59 (41/70)
HIV viral load in copies/mL (median) n.a 1.3 × 104 1.8 × 104
Median CD4 lymphocyte count (cells/μL)f n.a 136 206
Effective ARTg prior to admission (%) n.a 19 (10/53) 14 (9/64)
  1. Values in mean (min–max) or percentage and proportion. The 52 healthy controls are not included aDefined as jaundice/bilirubine > 50 µmol/L, bDefined as bleeding disturbances/hemolysis, cDefined as GCS ≤ 11, convulsions or confusion, dOne patient died of non-malarial cause, he was excluded, eSevere HIV = WHO stage 3 or 4, fCD4 T-cell count were only obtained in 8 (HIV only) and 11 (HIV + malaria) patients, gART = antiretroviral therapy = HIV treatment. ‘‘Effective’’ is defined as ‘‘Previous known ART and undetectable HIV-RNA in the plasma’’, in relation to all HIV-patients with and without malaria