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Table 2 Comparison of Treg subsets and serum cytokine level frequencies in brucellosis patients and healthy controls

From: Impact of immune checkpoint molecules on FoxP3+ Treg cells and related cytokines in patients with acute and chronic brucellosis

  Acute patients
N = 34
Chronic patients
N = 15
Healthy controls
N = 29
Kruskal–Wallis test P-valuea
Treg+ T cells (%)b 1.40 (0.86–2.04) 1.95 (1.54–3.28)* 1.30 (0.77–2.16) 0.021
Treg+ CTLA-4+ T cells (%) 0.41 (0.22–0.65) 0.66 (0.40–1.05)* 0.27 (0.17–0.59) 0.014
Treg+ GITR+ T cells (%) 0.105 (0.028–0.190)* 0.159 (0.088–0.265)* 0.004 (0.002–0.010) < 0.0001
Treg+ PD-1+ T cells (%) 0.25 (0.19–0.36)* 0.31 (0.25–0.54)* 0.14 (0.11–0.28) 0.001
  N = 40 N = 19 N = 30  
IL-10 (pg/mL) 2.17 (1.30–3.59)* 1.34 (1.02–2.21) 1.29 (0.80–2.34) 0.025
TGF-β1 (pg/mL) 421.2 (112.4–1584.0) 639.3 (200.1–1424.0)* 185.1 (90.9–329.4) 0.016
IL-35 (pg/mL) 0.33 (0.27–0.39) 0.34 (0.29–0.55) 0.35 (0.27–0.65) 0.468
  1. Data are reported as median (Q1–Q3), and Q1 and Q3 represent the first and third quartiles, respectively
  2. *P < 0.05 compared to healthy controls (Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test)
  3. aKruskal–Wallis tests were used for comparisons between groups (acute patients, chronic patients, and healthy controls)
  4. bTregs, proportion of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells among CD4+ cells