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Table 4 Percentual changes (expressed as median and interquartile interval) in parameters of heart rate variability analyzed in the time- and frequency-domains or using non-linear analysis during the tilt test in patients belonging to each of the studied groups: HIV seronegative controls (n = 35) and HIV seropositive patients of Group 1 (treated with 3TC, TDF, EFV, n = 44) and Group 2 (treated with 3TC + AZT; 3TC + TDF + LPV/r, n = 42) with suppressed viremia

From: Linear and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability in HIV-positive patients on two different antiretroviral therapy regimens

  HIV seronegative controls HIV seropositive p value
Group 1
(3TC, TDF, EFV)
Group 2
(3TC + AZT; 3TC + TDF + LPV/r)
Number 35 44 42  
Time-domain analysis     
 Mean RRi (%)  − 11.39 (12.51)  − 14.01 (10.00)  − 10.95 (8.68) NS (0.416)
 STD RR (%)  − 9.43 (45.59)  + 5.08 (37.29)  + 6.29 (66.18) NS (0.314)
 pNN50 (%)  − 45.47 (92.35)  − 66.97 (41.50)  − 65.04 (116.90) NS (0.321)
 RMSSD (%)  − 5.60 (44.92)  − 35.96 (31.52)  − 29.16 (59.77) NS (0.078)
Frequency-domain analysis     
 LF freq. (%)  − 10.10 (26.70)  + 3.75 (41.89) 0.00 (17.73) NS (0.279)
 LF power (%)  + 17.01 (189.21)  − 3.38 (103.13)  − 6.14 (135.12) NS (0.338)
 LF (n.u.) (%)  + 28.35 (36.48)  + 23.45 (32.32)  + 11.93 (35.23) NS (0.432)
 HF freq. (%) 0.00 (31.22) 0.00 (16.91)  − 3.54 (41.69) NS (0.697)
 HF power (%)  − 60.47 (116.99)  − 62.43 (48.59)  − 52.29 (125.62) NS (0.886)
 HF (n.u.) (%)  − 52.77 (78.63)  − 43.23 (52.22)  − 33.23 (62.95) NS (0.120)
 LF/HF ratio (%)  + 155.00 (534.86)  + 119.78 (306.38)  + 81.29 (251.76) NS (0.408)
Non-linear analysis     
 Poincaré plot     
  SD1 (%)  − 7.38 (41.62)  − 34.52 (30.59)  − 27.85 (60.14) NS (0.364)
  SD2 (%)  − 12.37 (33.74)  + 10.34 (58.18)  + 14.02 (63.19) NS (0.051)
 Recurrence plot     
  Mean line length (%)  + 8.12 (55.04)  + 33.04 (75.52)  + 25.98 (80.96) NS (0.074)
  Max line length (%)  + 1.16 (116.41)  + 24.62 (111.13)  − 1.67 (122.92) NS (0.868)
  Recurrence rate (%)  + 2.99 (41.08)  + 26.21 (52.27)  + 21.63 (45.34) NS (0.089)
  Determinism rate (%)  + 0.01 (2.09)  + 0.58 (0.84)  + 0.54 (1.65) NS (0.085)
 Detrended fluctuation analysis     
  α1 (%)  + 3.52 (40.47)  + 25.40 (30.84)  + 26.19 (34.42) NS (0.085)
  α2 (%)  + 4.17 (36.00)  + 6.02 (38.05)  + 10.07 (53.89) NS (0.620)
 Complexity     
  Approximate entropy (%)  − 8.13 (32.82)  − 26.73 (25.43)  − 21.14 (19.03) NS (0.094)
  Sample entropy (%)  − 3.45 (47.53)  − 35.95 (40.50)  − 24.30 (41.60) NS (0.079)
  Correlation dimension (%)  − 30.77 (84.03)  − 21.96 (68.76)  − 2.85 (166.96) NS (0.730)
  1. Data are expressed as median (percentile 25, percentile 75). p = significance level from Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA; NS = non significant; LF = low frequency; HF = high frequency; LH/HF = ratio between low and high frequency bands; n.u. = normalized units. 3TC = lamivudine, TDF = tenofovir, EFV: efavirenz, AZT = zidovudine, LPV = lopinavir, r = ritonavir
  2. *p < 0.05 versus control group