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Table 4 Characteristics of included studies

From: Reducing burden from respiratory infections in refugees and immigrants: a systematic review of interventions in OECD, EU, EEA and EU-applicant countries

Author, country, year Title Study design Type of intervention Allocation of intervention Outcome (measure) Claimed vaccination strategy (if applicable) Type of intervention and control group N Population included Setting (refugee camp, city etc.) % a&r Mean age, % children Country of origin/flight route
De vallière et al., Switzerland, 2011
[69]
Comparison of two strategies to prevent varicella outbreaks in housing facilities for asylum seekers Non-randomised intervention study of cohort type Vaccination of all individuals aged 15–39 years without contraindications Allocated by date of arrival Varicella outbreak-prevention (number of infected secondary cases) All refugees without contraindication aged 15–39 years Arrived 02/2009 to 05/2010 966 Recently arrived refugees Refugee reception centre in Switzerland 100% asylum seekers Unclear Various countries
Serotesting all exposed and vaccination of seronegative individuals All exposed and tested seronegative Arrived 05/2008 to 01/2009 858 (exposed: 248)
No outbreak-response-strategy No response strategy Arrived before 05/2008 126
Pallasch et al., germany, 2005
[67]
Improvement of protection given by vaccination for socially underprivileged groups on the basis of "key persons approach"[German] Non-randomised intervention study of cohort type Door-to-door MMR-vaccination campaign based on “keyperson’’-principle Allocated by residency MMR-vaccination (children with at least one dose (%) and with two doses (%) of MMR-vaccine) All children aged 15 months to 10 years Children under 10 years (measured only school children at preterm examination: 39.8%) 344 (measured: 129) Refugees and other inhabitants of hard-to-reach-neighbourhoods German hard-to-reach and refugee neighbourhood ”Altländer-Viertel’’ in the city of Stade About 30% 100% children under 10 years Many diverse countries of origin
Pre-intervention
Brockman et al., germany, 2016
[68]
Ögd-initiative zur verbes-serung
Der durch-impfung bei
Asylsuch-enden
Non-randomised intervention study of cohort type Housing based MMR and DPPT vaccination concept Allocated by residency Persons with at least one vaccination (%) All asylum seekers in community housings Community housing included in campaign 2256 Refugees and asylum seekers in community housings German community housings for asylum seekers in the district of Reutlingen 100% Unclear Various countries
Community housings excluded from campaign  
Koop et al.,
Macedonia, 2001
[66]
Results of the expanded program on immunization in the Macedonia refugee camps Non-randomised intervention study of cohort type Two consecutive vaccination campaigns for DPPT and BCG in stable and unstable population No allocation, comparison of two refugee camps Measles-, DPPT- and BCG -vaccination (vaccination coverage (%) after each campaign) All children under 4 years of age (10% of overall study population) Unstable population, high turnover 46,600 (included: 4660) Albanian Kosovoar refugees Macedonian refugee camp, “Brazda’’ 100% Included: 100% children aged under 4 years Kosovo
Stable population, low turnover 73,300 (included: 7330) Macedonian refugee camp “Cegrane’’
Coady et al., USA, 2008
[58]
A multilevel community-based intervention to increase influenza vaccination rates among hard-to-reach populations in New York city Non-randomised intervention study of cohort type Provision of informational materials concerning influenza on different levels and vaccination by nurses and physicians Allocated by residency and revenue Influenza vaccination (proportion of people with interest in getting vaccinated against influenza (%)) All residents with indication Post-intervention 3082 Immigrant and hard-to-reach Hard-to-reach neighbourhoods of east Harlem and the Bronx (New York) Unclear 41 y.o 70% hispanic, 16% undocumented
Pre-intervention 3744
Hoppe et al., USA, 2011
[60]
Achieving high coverage of h1n1 influenza vaccine in an ethnically diverse obstetric population Non-randomised intervention study of cohort type Informational and vaccination campaign for influenza Allocated by enrolment in the birth clinic Influenza vaccination (vaccination coverage against influenza (%)) All pregnant women Pregnant women at birth clinic in Seattle 157 Ethnically diverse pregnant women Birth clinic in Seattle Unclear Unclear Unclear
Cited data (10 states from pregnancy
Risk assessment monitoring system
(prams))
6255 Pregnant women from cited data Pregnant women in USA Unclear
Rodriguez-Rieiro et al., Spain, 2011
[59]
Vaccination against 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasonal influenza in Spain Non-randomised intervention study of cohort type Spanish national influenza vaccination campaign Allocated by residency Influenza vaccination
(vaccination coverage against influenza (%))
All residents with indication Post-intervention (after 2009/2010) 51,666 (immigrants: 3426) National cohort of Spanish citizens concerned by national influenza-vaccination campaign (with 6,6% immigrant population) Spain Unclear Unclear Unclear
Pre-intervention (before 2009/2010)
Larson et al., USA, 2009
[56]
Effect of intensive education on knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding upper respiratory infections among urban Latinos Non-randomised intervention study of cohort type Door-to-door informational campaigns concerning (prevention from) influenza Allocated by residency Influenza vaccination
(proportion of households with at least one vaccinated member against influenza (%))
All residents with indication Post-intervention 422 Heads of hard-to-reach and immigrant households Hard-to-reach-neighbourhood upper Manhattan (New York) Unclear Unclear 97% Latino ethnicity, 90% foreign-born
Pre-intervention 422
Larson et al., USA, 2010
[57]
Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on URIS and influenza in crowded, urban households Randomised controlled trial Door-to-door informational campaign and provision of face masks and/or alcohol based hand sanitiser Allocated by residency, random sampling Influenza vaccination, prevention of URI, ILI and influenza (vaccination coverage against influenza after intervention period (%), incidence of URI, ILI and influenza (n/1000 person-weeks) during intervention period All residents with indication Group e only provided with information material 904 Immigrant and hard-to-reach Hard-to-reach-neighbourhood upper Manhattan (New York) Unclear Unclear 90% Latino ethnicity, 50% foreign-born
Group 1 additionally provided with hand sanitiser 946
Group 2 additionally provided with face masks and hand sanitiser 938