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Table 3 Associations of diabetes with HIV outcomes 12 months after HIV diagnosis

From: Clinic-based diabetes screening at the time of HIV testing and associations with poor clinical outcomes in South Africa: a cohort study

  Event/TotalUnexposed, N (%) Event/TotalExposed, N (%) HR or RR (95% CI) p-value aHR or aRRa (95% CI) p-value
HbA1c ≥ 6.5%
 HIV viral load ≥ 50 copies/mL 136/793 (17.2) 2/13 (15.4) 0.90 (0.25–3.24) 0.868 0.66 (0.10–4.36) 0.666
 Hospitalizedb 73/1181 (6.2) 2/26 (7.7) 1.30 (0.32–5.28) 0.717 1.21 (0.29–5.03) 0.800
 Tuberculosisb 93/1181 (7.9) 3/26 (11.5) 1.51 (0.48–4.77) 0.483 1.28 (0.40–4.11) 0.680
 Diedb 37/1181 (3.1) 2/26 (7.7) 2.58 (0.62–10.70) 0.192 1.79 (0.41–7.87) 0.443
 Retained in care 950/1181 (88.4) 21/26 (80.8) 1.00 (0.83–1.21) 0.928 0.94 (0.78–1.13) 0.512
 Default or lost to follow-up 194/1181 (16.4) 3/26 (11.5) 0.70 (0.24–2.05) 0.518 1.01 (0.32–3.20) 0.992
HbA1c ≥ 5.7%
 HIV viral load > 50 copies/mL 106/639 (16.6) 32/167 (19.2) 1.16 (0.81–1.66) 0.428 1.17 (0.81–1.70) 0.413
 Hospitalizedb 63/968 (6.5) 12/239 (5.0) 0.77 (0.42–1.43) 0.414 0.72 (0.39–1.35) 0.227
 Tuberculosisb 75/968 (7.8) 21/239 (8.8) 1.17 (0.72–1.90) 0.519 1.02 (0.62–1.69) 0.936
 Diedb 29/968 (3.0) 10/239 (4.2) 1.38 (0.67–2.83) 0.382 1.02 (0.47–2.21) 0.962
 Retained in care 773/966 (79.9) 198/239 (82.9) 1.03 (0.97–1.11) 0.274 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 0.315
 Default or lost to follow-up 166/968 (17.2) 31/239 (13.0) 0.76 (0.53–1.08) 0.125 0.82 (0.59–1.14) 0.243
  1. aHR adjusted hazard ratio; aRR adjusted risk ratio; CI confidence interval; HR hazard ratio; HbA1c hemoglobin A1c; RR risk ratio
  2. aAdjusting for age, sex, body mass index, antiretroviral therapy initiation, anemia, and opportunistic infections excluding tuberculosis when it is the primary exposure of interest and otherwise inclusive of tuberculosis diagnosis
  3. bHazard ratio