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Table 2 Characteristics of cases during the febrile episode and differences among study subgroups

From: Interleukin 6 as a marker of severe bacterial infection in children with sickle cell disease and fever: a case–control study

  All cases (n = 79) SBI (n = 4) VI (n = 41) NPI (n = 33) p value
Clinical presentation      
Previous days of fever [m (IQR)] 1 (1–1) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–1) 0.459
Max. temperature [m (IQR)] 38.8 (38.4–39.1) 39.1 (38.9–39.2) 38.7 (38.3–39.2) 38.8 (38.5–39) 0.430
Upper respiratory symptoms [no. (%)] 49 (62) 2 (50) 33 (80.5) 14 (42.4) 0.003
Hemodynamic instability [no. (%)] 2 (2.5) 1 (25) 1 (2.4) 0 0.012
Hypoxemia [no. (%)] 10 (12.7) 0 4 (9.8) 6 (18.2) 0.410
Laboratory parameters      
Initial hemoglobin g/dl [m (IQR)] 8.5 (7.5–9.5) 9 (8.4–9.5) 8.5 (7.4–9.7) 8.5 (7.5–9.5) 0.681
Initial WBC × 109 /L [m (IQR)] 13.8 (9.7–21.1) 20.7 (17.6–31.4) 11.8 (8.9–21.2) 13.9 (10.9–19.8) 0.160
Initial neutrophils × 109 /L [m (IQR)] 8.1 (5.1–13.8) 16.8 (13.9–26.7) 7 (3.7–13.3) 7.8 (6.1–12.5) 0.039
Initial CRP mg/dl [m (IQR)] 2 (0.4–5.9) 9.6 (7.8–15.1) 1.1 (0.4–3.4) 3.1 (0.6–6) 0.007
Max. CRP mg/dl (n = 56) [m (IQR)] 4 (1.1–10.1) 13.5 (12.3–17.9) 3.3 (1–7.2) 5.2 (1.2–9.4) 0.047
Initial PCT ng/ml [m (IQR)] 0.3 (0.2–0.6) 2 (0.8–2.9) 0.4 (0.2–0.6) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.036
Max. PCT ng/ml (n = 40) [m (IQR)] 0.5 (0.2–1.4) 3.1 (1.8–18.9) 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.3 (0.2–0.5) 0.031
Outcome      
Hospital admission [no. (%)] 64 (81) 4 (100) 29 (70.7) 30 (90.9) 0.055
Antibiotic treatment [no. (%)] 76 (96.2) 4 (100) 39 (95.1) 32 (97) 0.845
Need for antibiotic change [no. (%)] 12 (15.2) 3 (75) 3 (7.5) 5 (15.6) 0.001
Final diagnosis of ACS [no. (%)] 13 (16.5) 1 (25) 5 (12.2) 7 (21.2) 0.527
Final diagnosis of VOC [no. (%)] 7 (8.9) 0 1 (2.4) 6 (18.2) 0.051
PICU admission [no. (%)] 3 (3.8) 0 1 (2.4) 2 (6.1) 0.665
Total days of fever [m (IQR)] 2 (1–4) 2.5 (2–4) 2 (2–3) 2 (1–4) 0.749
Days of admission [m (IQR)] 4 (2–6) 7.5 (5.5–8.5) 3 (0.5–5) 5(2.5–6) 0.013
  1. m (IQR)  median (interquartile range), no.  number, Max.  maximum value during the episode, WBC  white blood count, CRP  C-reactive protein, PCT  procalcitonin, ACS  acute chest syndrome, VOC  vaso-occlusive crisis
  2. Variables with significant differences (p value < 0.05) are highlighted in bold font