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Table 2 Outbreak definitions used within included studies

From: School-based surveillance of acute infectious disease in children: a systematic review

First Author & year of publication Outbreak threshold / alert Time period of breach
Chu 2013 [52] Exceedance based on C2-MEDIUM methoda OR > 5% all-cause absenteeismb Single day
Single day
Kom Mogto 2012 [49] ≥10% ILI-related absenteeism Single day
Lenaway 1995 [45] > 7.5% illness absence Single week average
Mann 2011 [41] ≥8% all-cause absenteeism AND
1 SD above 30 day mean
Single day
Suzue 2012c [50] > 2% ILI-related absenteeism Single day
Williams 2013 [42] > 10% all-cause absenteeism
> 5% ILI-related absenteeism
2 or more consecutive school days
  1. a C2-MEDIUM method calculates the mean and standard deviation (SD) from −9 to −3 days before the day of interest. Threshold is an exceedance of the expected value by three standard deviations
  2. b Not clearly stated, assumed from description of methods
  3. c Threshold used to detect start and end of pandemic