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Table 2 Distribution of all studied variables and their associations with the willingness to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine

From: Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccination intention and willingness to pay: findings from a population-based survey in Bangladesh

Variables Willingness to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine
No
n (%)
Yes
n (%)
OR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
Socio-demographics
Age
  18-25 years 111 (45.9) 217 (33.3) 1.173 (0.652-2.11) 0.594 1.148 (0.596-2.211) 0.680
  26-35 years 73 (30.2) 266 (40.8) 2.186 (1.2-3.983) 0.011 2.068 (1.072-3.99) 0.030
  36-45 years 37 (15.3) 134 (20.6) 2.173 (1.132-4.171) 0.02 1.715 (0.847-3.472) 0.134
  > 45 years 21 (8.7) 35 (5.4) Reference   Reference  
Sex
  Male 107 (44.2) 337 (51.7) 1.35 (1.003-1.816) 0.047 1.439 (1.044-1.985) 0.026
  Female 135 (55.8) 315 (48.3) Reference   Reference  
Marital status
  Unmarried 126 (52.1) 385 (59) 3.565 (1.607-7.909) 0.002 2.057 (0.847-4.993) 0.111
  Married 102 (42.1) 255 (39.1) 2.917 (1.305-6.521) 0.159 2.299 (0.953-5.545) 0.064
  Divorced 14 (5.8) 12 (1.8) Reference   Reference  
Education level
  Bachelor 112 (46.3) 388 (59.5) 2.162 (1.549-3.018) <0.001 1.701 (1.169-2.476) 0.006
  Master's and above 37 (15.3) 115 (17.6) 1.94 (1.234-3.049) 0.004 1.414 (0.859-2.327) 0.173
  Intermediate or below 93 (38.4) 149 (22.9) Reference   Reference  
Monthly family income
  < 20000 58 (24) 133 (20.4) 0.779 (0.516-1.177) 0.236
  20000-30000 53 (21.9) 140 (21.5) 0.898 (0.591-1.363) 0.613
  30000-40000 62 (25.6) 176 (27) 0.965 (0.648-1.437) 0.86
  > 40000 69 (28.5) 203 (31.1) Reference    
Number of children in the family
  0 124 (51.2) 319 (48.9) 1.029 (0.72-1.47) 0.875
  1 54 (22.3) 173 (26.5) 1.281 (0.841-1.953) 0.248
  ≥2 64 (26.4) 160 (24.5) Reference    
Place of residence
  Urban 168 (69.4) 532 (81.6) 1.953 (1.393-2.737) <0.001 1.687 (1.16-2.454) 0.006
  Rural 74 (30.6) 120 (18.4) Reference   Reference  
Health status, COVID-19 experience, and vaccination-related information
Self-rated health status
  Good 146 (60.3) 487 (74.7) 1.941 (1.42-2.652) <0.001 1.713 (1.215-2.417) 0.002
  Poor 96 (39.7) 165 (25.3) Reference   Reference  
History of chronic disease
  No 162 (66.9) 484 (74.2) 1.423 (1.033-1.96) 0.031 1.187 (0.817-1.724) 0.369
  Yes 80 (33.1) 168 (25.8) Reference   Reference  
Ever tested for COVID-19
  Yes 61 (25.2) 158 (24.2) 0.949 (0.675-1.335) 0.764
  No 181 (74.8) 494 (75.8) Reference    
Ever diagnosed with COVID-19
  Yes 46 (19) 121 (18.6) 0.971 (0.666-1.415) 0.878
  No 196 (81) 531 (81.4) Reference    
Family member/friend ever infected by COVID-19
  Yes 70 (28.9) 165 (25.3) 0.833 (0.599-1.157) 0.275
  No 172 (71.1) 487 (74.7) Reference    
Impact of COVID-19 on daily life
  Severea 90 (37.2) 263 (40.3) 1.142 (0.842-1.548) 0.392
  Littleb 152 (62.8) 389 (59.7) Reference    
Impact of COVID-19 on studies/work
  Severea 122 (50.4) 348 (53.4) 1.126 (0.838-1.513) 0.431
  Littleb 120 (49.6) 304 (46.6) Reference    
Impact of COVID-19 on physical/mental health
  Severea 100 (41.3) 298 (45.7) 1.195 (0.887-1.611) 0.242
  Littleb 142 (58.7) 354 (54.3) Reference    
COVID-19 vaccination is an effective way to prevent and control COVID-19
  Yes 161 (66.5) 543 (83.3) 2.506 (1.789-3.511) <0.001 2.172 (1.486-3.176) <0.001
  No 81 (33.5) 109 (16.7) Reference    
Doctor’s recommendation is an important factor in vaccination decision-making
  Yes 200 (82.6) 597 (91.6) 2.279 (1.479-3.512) <0.001 1.549 (0.938-2.557) 0.087
  No 42 (17.4) 55 (8.4) Reference   Reference  
Previous refusals to get any type of vaccination
  No 192 (79.3) 536 (82.2) 1.203 (0.831-1.743) 0.327
  Yes 50 (20.7) 116 (17.8) Reference    
Perceived stigma of COVID-19
If I had COVID-19, I would be embarrassed
  Agreec 64 (26.4) 168 (25.8) 0.965 (0.69-1.35) 0.837
  Disagreed 178 (73.6) 484 (74.2) Reference    
If I had COVID-19, people would think badly of me
  Agreec 66 (27.3) 164 (25.2) 0.896 (0.642-1.251) 0.520
  Disagreed 176 (72.7) 488 (74.8) Reference    
If I had COVID-19, people would treat me differently.
  Agreec 80 (33.1) 196 (30.1) 0.87 (0.635-1.194) 0.389
  Disagreed 162 (66.9) 456 (69.9) Reference    
If I had COVID-19, I would not tell anyone
  Agreec 46 (19) 96 (14.7) 0.736 (0.499-1.084) 0.120
  Disagreed 196 (81) 556 (85.3) Reference    
Perceived susceptibility of contracting COVID-19
My chance of getting COVID-19 in the next few months is high
  Agreec 61 (25.2) 165 (25.3) 1.005 (0.716-1.412) 0.976
  Disagreed 181 (74.8) 487 (74.7) Reference    
I am worried about the likelihood of getting COVID 19
  Agreec 93 (38.4) 313 (48) 1.479 (1.095-1.999) 0.011 1.403 (1.001-1.967) 0.049
  Disagreed 149 (61.6) 339 (52) Reference   Reference  
Getting COVID-19 is currently a possibility for me
  Agreec 80 (33.1) 217 (33.3) 1.01 (0.738-1.382) 0.950
  Disagreed 162 (66.9) 435 (66.7) Reference    
Perceived severity of COVID-19
Complications from COVID-19 are serious
  Agreec 123 (50.8) 289 (44.3) 0.77 (0.573-1.035) 0.084
  Disagreed 119 (49.2) 363 (55.7) Reference    
I will be very sick if I get infected with COVID-19
  Agreec 104 (43) 261 (40) 0.886 (0.657-1.194) 0.426
  Disagreed 138 (57) 391 (60) Reference    
I will be very afraid if I become infected with COVID-19
  Agreec 107 (44.2) 294 (45.1) 1.036 (0.77-1.394) 0.815
  Disagreed 135 (55.8) 358 (54.9) Reference    
Perceived benefits of COVID-19 vaccination
Vaccination is a good idea because I feel less worried about catching COVID-19
  Agreec 78 (32.2) 251 (38.5) 1.316 (0.963-1.799) 0.085
  Disagreed 164 (67.8) 401 (61.5) Reference    
Vaccination decreases my chance of getting COVID-19 or its complications
  Agreec 85 (35.1) 293 (44.9) 1.507 (1.11-2.047) 0.009 1.15 (0.787-1.681) 0.47
  Disagreed 157 (64.9) 359 (55.1) Reference   Reference  
Perceived barriers of COVID-19 vaccination
I am worried the possible side-effects of COVID-19 vaccination would interfere with my usual activities
  Agreec 112 (46.3) 303 (46.5) 1.008 (0.75-1.355) 0.959
  Disagreed 130 (53.7) 349 (53.5) Reference    
I am concerned about the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccination
  Agreec 124 (51.2) 346 (53.1) 1.076 (0.801-1.446) 0.627
  Disagreed 118 (48.8) 306 (46.9) Reference    
I am concerned about the safety of the COVID-19 vaccination
  Agreec 127 (52.5) 356 (54.6) 1.089 (0.81-1.464) 0.572
  Disagreed 115 (47.5) 296 (45.4) Reference    
I am concerned about the affordability (high cost of the vaccine) of getting the COVID-19 vaccination
  Agreec 131 (54.1) 319 (48.9) 0.812 (0.604-1.091) 0.167
  Disagreed 111 (45.9) 333 (51.1) Reference    
I am concerned about faulty/fake COVID-19 vaccines
  Agreec 147 (60.7) 392 (60.1) 0.974 (0.72-1.318) 0.866
  Disagreed 95 (39.3) 260 (39.9) Reference    
Cues to action
I will only take the COVID-19 vaccine if I am given adequate information about it
  Agreec 148 (61.2) 453 (69.5) 1.446 (1.063-1.966) 0.019 0.954 (0.643-1.415) 0.814
  Disagreed 94 (38.8) 199 (30.5) Reference   Reference  
I will only take the COVID-19 vaccine if the vaccine is taken by many in the public
  Agreec 125 (51.7) 380 (58.3) 1.308 (0.972-1.759) 0.076
  Disagreed 117 (48.3) 272 (41.7) Reference    
  1. OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, aOR Adjusted Odds Ratios, BDT Bangladeshi Taka
  2. aVery severe/ severe
  3. bVery little/ little/ fair
  4. cStrongly agree/ agree
  5. dStrongly disagree/ disagree/ not sure