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Table 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s clinical surveillance definition for VAP

From: The effect of ventilator-associated pneumonia on the prognosis of intensive care unit patients within 90 days and 180 days

Radiologic criteria (two or more serial radiographs with at least one of the following) 1. New or progressive and persistent infiltrate
2. Consolidation
3. Cavitation
Systemic criteria (at least one) 1. Fever (> 38 °C or > 100.4 °F)
2. Leukopenia (< 4000 WBC/mm3) or leukocytosis (≥12,000 WBC/mm3)
3. For adults ≥70 years old, altered mental status with no other recognized cause
Pulmonary criteria (at least two) 1. New onset of purulent sputum, or change in character of sputum, or increased respiratory secretions, or increased suctioning requirements
2. Worsening gas exchange (e.g., desaturations, increased oxygen requirements, or increased ventilator demand
3. New onset or worsening cough, or dyspnea, or tachypnea
4. Rales or bronchial breath sounds