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Table 3 Multivariable Cox regression model for mortality due to infection during 2004–2015 in entire cohort

From: History of anemia and long-term mortality due to infection: a cohort study with 12 years follow-up in South Korea

Variable Multivariable model P-value
HR (95% CI)
Anemia (vs non-anemic group, model 1) 1.47 (1.33, 1.64) < 0.001
Subgroup analysis (model 2)
 Non-anemic group 1  
 Mild anemia (n = 36,383, 7.1%) 1.38 (1.23, 1.55) < 0.001
 Moderate anemia (n = 11,787, 2.3%) 2.02 (1.62, 2.50) < 0.001
 Severe anemia (n = 872, 0.2%) 1.55 (0.50, 4.82) 0.448
 Age, year 1.16 (1.15, 1.37) < 0.001
 Sex, male 2.16 (1.96, 2.39) < 0.001
Residence at diagnosis of sepsis
 Seoul (Capital city) 1  
 Other metropolitan city 1.18 (1.02, 1.37) 0.027
 Other area 1.24 (1.08, 1.41) 0.002
Body mass index, kg/m2
 18.5–24.9 (normal) 1  
 Below 18.5 (Underweight) 2.33 (2.04, 2.66) < 0.001
 25.0–29.9 (Overweight) 0.74 (0.67, 0.81) < 0.001
 Above 30.0 (Obese) 1.07 (0.83, 1.37) 0.625
 Unknwon 0.33 (0.05, 2.36) 0.270
Annual income level
 0–20% 1  
 20–40% 0.91 (0.80, 1.03) 0.143
 40–60% 0.84 (0.74, 0.96) 0.008
 60–80% 0.74 (0.65, 0.83) < 0.001
 80–100% 0.65 (0.58, 0.73) < 0.001
Underlying disability
 Mild to moderate 1.19 (0.88, 1.59) 0.258
 Severe 1.63 (1.12, 2.37) 0.011
Smoking status
 Never smoker 1  
 Previous smoker 1.34 (1.16, 1.54) < 0.001
 Current smoker 1.50 (1.35, 1.67) < 0.001
 Unknown 1.08 (0.83, 1.39) 0.580
Alcohol consumption (frequency)
 No drink 1  
 2–3 per a month 0.73 (0.63, 0.85) < 0.001
 1–2 per a week 0.91 (0.80, 1.05) 0.199
 3–4 per a week 0.82 (0.69, 0.99) 0.034
 Almost everyday drink 1.01 (0.87, 1.18) 0.867
 Unknown 0.93 (0.66, 1.31) 0.688
Exercise frequency
 No exercise 1  
 1–2 per a week 0.81 (0.71, 0.92) 0.001
 3–4 per a week 0.74 (0.61, 0.89) 0.002
 5–6 per a week 0.72 (0.52, 0.99) 0.044
 Almost everyday 0.79 (0.68, 0.92) 0.002
 Unknown 1.22 (0.95, 1.58) 0.128
 Charlson comorbidity index, 1 point (model 2) 1.13 (1.11, 1.15) < 0.001
 Myocardial infarction 1.19 (0.91, 1.55) 0.198
 Congestive heart failure 1.18 (1.01, 1.3) 0.038
 Peripheral vascular disease 1.22 (1.06, 1.40) 0.007
 Cerebrovascular disease 1.29 (1.13, 1.47) < 0.001
 Dementia 1.48 (1.07, 2.04) 0.018
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1.26 (1.15, 1.37) < 0.001
  Rheumatic disease 1.29 (1.13, 1.47) < 0.001
 Peptic ulcer disease 0.91 (0.83, 0.99) 0.028
 Mild liver disease 1.24 (1.13, 1.37) < 0.001
 Diabetes without chronic complication 1.25 (1.10, 1.43) 0.001
 Diabetes with chronic complication 1.36 (1.16, 1.59) < 0.001
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia 1.13 (0.79, 1.64) 0.503
 Renal disease 0.92 (0.60, 1.40) 0.692
 Any malignancy 1.15 (1.03, 1.28) 0.014
 Moderate or severe liver disease 2.30 (1.55, 3.43) < 0.001
 Metastatic solid tumour 0.66 (0.37, 1.18) 0.162
 AIDS/HIV 0.00 (0.00-) 0.997
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus