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Table 1 Comparision of clinico-epidemiological characteristics between anemia group and non-anemic group before and after PS matching

From: History of anemia and long-term mortality due to infection: a cohort study with 12 years follow-up in South Korea

Variable Total Cohort (n = 512,905) ASD PS-matched cohort (n = 98,078) ASD
Anemia group
n = 49,042
Non-anemic group
n = 463,863
Anemia group
n = 49,039
Non-anemic group
n = 49,039
Age, year 54.9 (10.8) 53.5 (9.5) 0.134 54.9 (10.8) 54.7 (9.8) 0.017
Sex, male 12,778 (26.1) 265,068 (57.1) 0.708 12,778 (26.1) 12,458 (25.4) 0.015
Residence
 Seoul (Capital city) 8214 (16.7) 79,819 (17.2)   8213 (16.7) 8280 (16.9)  
 Other metropolitan city 12,838 (26.2) 127,430 (27.5) 0.035 12,838 (26.2) 13,065 (26.6) 0.011
 Other area 27,990 (57.1) 256,614 (55.3) 0.125 27,988 (57.1) 27,694 (56.5) 0.012
Body mass index, kg/m2
 18.5–24.9 (normal) 34,312 (70.0) 286,642 (61.8)   34,311 (70.0) 33,639 (68.6)  
 Below 18.5 (Underweight)
 25.0–29.9 (Overweight)
2302 (4.7) 9561 (2.1) 0.125 2300 (4.7) 2016 (4.1) 0.027
11,384 (23.2) 153,504 (33.1) 0.234 11,384 (23.2) 12,229 (24.9) 0.041
 Above 30.0 (Obese) 982 (2.0) 13,741 (3.0) 0.069 982 (2.0) 1094 (2.2) 0.016
 Unknwon 62 (0.1) 415 (0.1) 0.010 62 (0.1) 61 (0.1) < 0.001
Annual income level
 0–20% 9698 (19.8) 70,879 (15.3)   9698 (19.8) 9101 (18.6)  
 20–40% 7819 (15.9) 62,101 (13.4) 0.070 7818 (15.9) 7515 (15.3) 0.017
 40–60% 7811 (15.9) 73,151 (15.8) 0.004 7811 (15.9) 7969 (16.3) 0.009
 60–80% 9492 (19.4) 98,521 (21.2) 0.048 9492 (19.4) 9690 (19.8) 0.010
 80–100% 14,222 (29.0) 159,211 (34.3) 0.117 14,220 (29.0) 14,764 (30.1) 0.024
Underlying disability
 Mild to moderate 228 (0.5) 1824 (0.4) 0.011 227 (0.5) 216 (0.4) 0.003
 Severe 196 (0.4) 1050 (0.2) 0.028 195 (0.4) 162 (0.3) 0.011
Smoking status
 Never smoker 39,738 (81.0) 291,628 (62.9)   39,735 (81.0) 40,063 (81.7)  
 Previous smoker 2112 (4.3) 41,404 (8.9) 0.228 2112 (4.3) 2064 (4.2) 0.005
 Current smoker 5189 (10.6) 112,137 (24.2) 0.442 5189 (10.6) 4951 (10.1) 0.016
 Unknown 2003 (4.1) 18,694 (4.0) 0.003 2003 (4.1) 1961 (4.0) 0.004
Alcohol consumption (frequency)
 No drink 35,365 (72.1) 250,644 (54.0)   35,362 (72.1) 35,364 (72.1)  
 2–3 per a month 5535 (11.3) 71,024 (15.3) 0.127 5535 (11.3) 5671 (11.6) 0.009
 1–2 per a week 4054 (8.3) 78,927 (17.0) 0.318 4054 (8.3) 4053 (8.3) < 0.001
 3–4 per a week 1508 (3.1) 33,906 (7.3) 0.245 1508 (3.1) 1410 (2.9) 0.012
 Almost everyday drink 1384 (2.8) 20,995 (4.5) 0.103 1384 (2.8) 1388 (2.8) < 0.001
 Unknown 1196 (2.4) 8367 (1.8) 0.041 1196 (2.4) 1153 (2.4) 0.006
Exercise frequency
 No exercise 31,266 (63.8) 254,500 (54.9)   31,264 (63.8) 30,689 (62.6)  
 1–2 per a week 8461 (17.3) 109,692 (23.6) 0.127 8460 (17.3) 8635 (17.6) 0.009
 3–4 per a week 3543 (7.2) 43,539 (9.4) 0.318 3543 (7.2) 3801 (7.8) 0.020
 5–6 per a week 1132 (2.3) 12,043 (2.6) 0.245 1132 (2.3) 1163 (2.4) 0.004
 Almost everyday 3372 (6.9) 31,328 (6.8) 0.103 3372 (6.9) 3427 (7.0) 0.004
 Unknown 1268 (2.6) 12,761 (2.8) 0.041 1268 (2.6) 1324 (2.7) 0.007
 Charlson comorbidity index 1.5 (1.9) 1.3 (1.6) 0.136 1.5 (1.9) 1.5 (1.8) 0.019
 Myocardial infarction 509 (1.0) 3925 (0.8) 0.019 509 (1.0) 460 (0.9) 0.010
 Congestive heart failure 1814 (3.7) 12,412 (2.7) 0.054 1813 (3.7) 1688 (3.4) 0.014
 Peripheral vascular disease 2183 (4.5) 15,702 (3.4) 0.052 2182 (4.4) 2026 (4.1) 0.015
 Cerebrovascular disease 2608 (5.3) 19,873 (4.3) 0.054 2607 (5.3) 2526 (5.2) 0.007
 Dementia 271 (0.6) 1757 (0.4) 0.023 271 (0.6) 261 (0.5) 0.003
 Chronic pulmonary disease 12,497 (25.5) 104,209 (22.5) 0.069 12,495 (25.5) 12,513 (25.5) < 0.001
 Rheumatic disease 3631 (7.4) 24,377 (5.3) 0.072 3630 (7.4) 3537 (7.2) 0.007
 Peptic ulcer disease 16,890 (34.4) 139,279 (30.0) 0.093 16,888 (34.4) 16,696 (34.0) 0.008
 Mild liver disease 7800 (15.9) 76,669 (16.5) 0.017 7798 (15.9) 7813 (15.9) < 0.001
 Diabetes without chronic complication 2923 (6.0) 26,396 (5.7) 0.011 2923 (6.0) 2949 (6.0) 0.002
 Diabetes with chronic complication 2038 (4.2) 16,010 (3.5) 0.035 2038 (4.2) 1920 (3.9) 0.012
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia 276 (0.6) 1901 (0.4) 0.020 276 (0.6) 257 (0.5) 0.005
 Renal disease 595 (1.2) 1971 (0.4) 0.072 592 (1.2) 455 (0.9) 0.026
vAny malignancy 6889 (14.0) 50,533 (10.9) 0.091 6888 (14.0) 6784 (13.8) 0.006
 Moderate or severe liver disease 277 (0.6) 1341 (0.3) 0.037 275 (0.6) 242 (0.5) 0.009
 Metastatic solid tumour 454 (0.9) 2075 (0.4) 0.050 453 (0.9) 401 (0.8) 0.011
 AIDS/HIV 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) < 0.001 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
  1. Presented as mean value with standard deviation or number with percentage
  2. PS, propensity score; ASD, absolute value of standardized mean difference; AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus