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Table 2 Continuous variables and risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19

From: Predictors of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables No. of patients (studies) MD (95% Cl) P value I2 (%) P value of Egger test
Age, years 1829 (8) 13.9 [8.95, 18.9] <  0.001 89 0.20
Time from illness onset to hospital admission, days 1036 (6) 0.62 [− 0.04, 1.27] 0.07 0 0.20
Respiratory rate, breaths per min 922 (5) 2.94 [1.10, 4.79] 0.002 70 0.84
Heart rate, beat per min 974 (6) 3.91 [1.09, 6.72] 0.006 9 0.28
Partial pressure of oxygen, mm Hg 358 (3) −28.7 [−52.7, −4.65] 0.02 89 0.46
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, mm Hg 358 (3) −5.03 [−6.95, −3.12] <  0.001 0 0.36
Peripheral oxygen saturation 491 (3) −7.45 [−15.9, 0.96] 0.08 96 0.52
Partial pressure of oxygen: fraction of inspired oxygen 410 (4) −122.6 [− 198.2, −47.0] 0.001 92 0.12
Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 77 (2) 3.86 [1.90, 5.81] <  0.001 0 Not available
Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score 216 (2) 3.48 [3.06, 3.90] <  0.001 0 Not available
Laboratory findings
 White blood cell count, ×109/L 1178 (7) 3.53 [2.53, 4.54] <  0.001 48 0.61
 Neutrophil count, ×109/L 1178 (7) 3.86 [2.74, 4.99] <  0.001 61 0.32
 Lymphocyte count, ×109/L 1178 (7) −0.34 [−0.47, − 0.21] <  0.001 78 0.18
 Monocyte count, ×109/L 919 (4) −0.06 [− 0.11, − 0.01] 0.02 62 0.95
 Platelet count, ×109/L 1029 (5) −34.0 [−57.1, −10.9] 0.004 59 0.44
 Hemoglobin, g/L 829 (4) 0.54 [−2.49, 3.58] 0.73 8 0.32
 Albumin, g/L 694 (5) −4.05 [−6.51, −1.59] 0.001 87 0.51
 Total bilirubin, μmol/L 639 (4) 4.01 [3.04, 4.99] <  0.001 0 0.12
 Alanine aminotransferase, U/L 1178 (7) 3.58 [−0.72, 7.87] 0.10 60 0.43
 Aspartate aminotransferase, U/L 1153 (6) 14.8 [9.56, 20.1] <  0.001 57 0.68
 Creatinine, μmol/L 1178 (7) 18.0 [10.1, 25.9] <  0.001 64 0.42
 Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 419 (2) 3.94 [1.97, 5.90] <  0.001 80 Not available
 Urea, mmol/L 500 (2) 3.41 [1.81, 5.02] <  0.001 71 Not available
 Prothrombin time, seconds 1273 (5) 0.98 [0.74, 1.22] <  0.001 0 0.68
 Activated partial thromboplastin time, seconds 953 (4) −0.47 [−3.31, 2.37] 0.75 91 0.71
 D-dimer, mg/L 1353 (7) 5.26 [3.58, 6.93] <  0.001 31 0.92
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 1178 (7) 55.9 [27.3, 84.5] <  0.001 92 0.39
 Procalcitonin, ng/mL 1029 (6) 0.27 [0.14, 0.40] <  0.001 76 0.27
 Ferritin, μg/L 435 (2) 912.1 [705.2, 1119.0] <  0.001 25 Not available
 Lactate dehydrogenase, U/L 829 (4) 225.6 [153.8, 297.3] <  0.001 81 0.45
 Creatine kinase, U/L 1029 (6) 59.3 [26.2, 92.5] <  0.001 75 0.66
 γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, U/L 453 (2) 4.91 [−16.5, 26.4] 0.65 92 Not available
 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm/h 490 (3) 9.01 [3.85, 14.2] <  0.001 0 0.58
 Creatine kinase-MB, U/L 670 (4) 3.11 [0.84, 5.37] 0.007 74 0.17
 N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, pg/mL 476 (2) 865.7 [690.2, 1041.2] <  0.001 0 Not available
 Hypersensitive cardiac troponin I, ng/mL 804 (3) 68.6 [29.3, 107.9] <  0.001 87 0.32
 Myoglobin, ng/mL 381 (2) 170.2 [91.4, 249.1] <  0.001 0 Not available
 Cystatin C, mg/L 186 (2) 0.28 [0.15, 0.42] <  0.001 0 Not available
 Interleukin-6, pg/mL 974 (5) 47.8 [10.6, 85.0] 0.01 96 0.09
 CD3+ cell count, /μL 306 (2) − 315.1 [− 362.2, − 268.0] <  0.001 0 Not available
 CD4+ cell count, /μL 645 (3) − 168.5 [− 196.1, −140.8] <  0.001 20 0.02
    CD8+ cell count, /μL 645 (3) −116.3 [− 139.2, −93.5] <  0.001 47 0.62