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Table 1 Characteristics at admission of the patients with COVID-19

From: Lymphocyte subset alterations with disease severity, imaging manifestation, and delayed hospitalization in COVID-19 patients

Variable Total (n = 106) Mild (n = 73) Severe (n = 33) Univariate logistic regression Multivariate logistic regression
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Epidemiological and clinical characteristics
Age (years) 46.17 ± 14.39 44.95 ± 13.59 48.88 ± 15.88 1.020 (0.990–1.050) 0.194   
Gender (female/male) 42/64 31/42 11/22 1.476 (0.625–3.488) 0.375   
Time from onset to hospitalization (d) 5 (2–8) 4 (2–7) 7 (4–10) 1.156 (1.034–1.293) 0.011   
Exposure history(Y/N) 83 (78.3%) 55 (75.3%) 28 (84.8%) 1.833 (0.616–5.453) 0.276   
Any comorbidities 33 (31.1%) 18 (24.7%) 15 (45.5%) 2.546 (1.069–6.063) 0.035   
Hypertension 8 (7.5%) 4 (5.5%) 4 (12.1%) 2.379 (0.557–10.166) 0.242   
Diabetes 10 (9.4%) 6 (8.2%) 4 (12.1%) 1.540 (0.404–5.871) 0.527   
Hepatitis B 7 (6.6%) 6 (8.2%) 1 (30%) 0.349 (0.040–3.021) 0.339   
Bacterial infection 12 (11.3%) 7 (9.6%) 5 (15.2%) 1.684 (0.492–5.759) 0.406   
Signs and symptoms
Fever 97 (91.5%) 66 (90.4%) 31 (93.9%) 1.644 (0.323–8.377) 0.550   
Dry cough 46 (43.4%) 30 (41.1%) 16 (48.5%) 1.349 (0.590–3.084) 0.478   
Sputum production 12 (11.3%) 5 (6.8%) 7 (21.2%) 3.662 (1.067–12.570) 0.039   
Chills 22 (20.8%) 17 (23.3%) 5 (15.2%) 0.588 (0.197–1.759) 0.342   
Myalgia 8 (7.5%) 6 (8.2%) 2 (6.1%) 0.720 (0.138–3.774) 0.698   
Chest tightness 34 (32.1%) 15 (20.5%) 19 (57.6%) 5.248 (2.147–12.827) < 0.001 3.256 (1.134–9.345) 0.028
Polypnea 14 (13.2%) 4 (5.5%) 10 (30.3%) 7.500 (2.145–26.227) 0.002   
Fatigue 21 (19.8%) 12 (16.4%) 9 (27.3%) 1.906 (0.712–5.104) 0.199   
Headache/ dizziness 13 (12.3%) 12 (16.4%) 1 (3.0%) 0.159 (0.020–1.277) 0.084   
Sore throat 20 (18.9%) 14 (19.2%) 6 (18.2%) 0.937 (0.325–2.701) 0.903   
Rhinorrhea/ Rhinobyon 6 (5.7%) 5 (6.8%) 1 (3.0%) 0.425 (0.048–3.789) 0.443   
Diarrhea 7 (6.6%) 4 (5.5%) 3 (9.1%) 1.725 (0.364–8.185) 0.493   
Laboratory parameters
CRP (mg/L) 12.63 (3.53–40.49) 9.00 (2.46–24.93) 22.99 (6.36–77.01) 1.011 (1. 002–1.021) 0.018   
WBC (×109/L) 5.14 (3.63–6.79) 4.84 (3.60–6.63) 5.68 (3.68–7.00) 1.076 (0.926–1.249) 0.339   
Lymphocyte count (× 109/L) 0.99 (0.65–1.40) 1.13 (0.86–1.58) 0.68 (0.40–0.99) 0.065 (0.018–0.244) < 0.001 0.097 (0.024–0.396) 0.010
Neutrophils count (× 109/L) 3.47 (2.30–5.17) 3.19 (2.07–4.89) 3.95 (2.66–5.95) 1.163 (0.996–1.357) 0.055   
RBC (× 1012/L) 4.61 ± 0.55 4.66 ± 0.54 4.50 ± 0.57 0.571 (0.262–1.241) 0.157   
Hemoglobin (g/L) 143.59 ± 16.91 144.29 ± 17.37 142.06 ± 16.02 0.992 (0. 969–1.016) 0.530   
Platelets (× 109/L) 176.16 ± 62.11 181.53 ± 61.09 164.27 ± 63.65 0.995 (0. 987–1.003) 0.189   
Albumin (g/L) 43.03 ± 6.07 44.32 ± 5.71 40.16 ± 5.94 0.857 (0.781–0.939) 0.001   
ALT (U/L) 18.00 (12.00–34.00) 16.00 (12.00–30.50) 23.00 (16.00–43.00) 1.010 (0.996–1.025) 0.167   
AST (U/L) 24.00 (19.00–33.00) 22.00 (18.00–28.50) 28.00 (22.00–36.50) 1.010 (0.994–1.027) 0.228   
Total bilirubin (μmol/L) 9.05 (5.55–12.38) 7.70 (5.30–11.40) 9.60 (7.20–15.40) 1.054 (0.982–1.130) 0.143   
Direct bilirubin (μmol/L) 2.60 (2.00–4.03) 2.50 (1.95–3.60) 3.60 (2.40–5.65) 1.198 (1.024–1.401) 0.024   
GGT (U/L) 24.00 (14.00–47.50) 20.00 (12.00–34.00) 41.00 (22.00–71.50) 1.011 (1.001–1.022) 0.034 1.011 (1.002–1.021) 0.022
Lactate dehydrogenase 231.50 (190.75–320.25) 211.00 (183.50–269.50) 291.00 (239.50–394.50) 1.008 (1.004–1.013) 0.001   
Creatinine (mmol/L) 65.20 (52.00–79.90) 65.70 (51.85–79.50) 63.60 (52.70–81.58) 1.004 (0.987–1.020) 0.668   
Urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 4.20 (3.40–5.35) 4.10 (3.30–5.30) 4.55 (3.53–5.50) 1.068 (0.879–1.298) 0.507   
Creatine kinase (U/L) 85.00 (59.25–125.00) 85.00 (60.00–124.50) 97.00 (51.00–134.00) 1.003 (0.998–1.007) 0.270   
CK-MB (U/L) 13.00 (10.00–16.00) 13.00 (10.00–15.00) 13.00 (10.00–19.00) 1.017 (0.985–1.050) 0.297   
Prothrombin time (s) 12.30 (11.90–12.85) 12.25 (11.83–12.70) 12.40 (12.10–13.15) 1.247 (0.769–2.022) 0.371   
Thrombin time (s) 15.50 (14.95–16.40) 15.60 (15.10–16.65) 15.30 (14.65–16.15) 0.975 (0.707–1.344) 0.877   
APTT (s) 29.30 (27.25–32.95) 29.20 (27.13–32.38) 30.30 (27.80–33.75) 1.004 (0.951–1.060) 0.879   
D-dimer (mg/L) 0.29 (0.19–0.57) 0.25 (0.16–0.50) 0.49 (0.27–1.03) 3.883 (1.485–10.151) 0.006   
  1. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, WBC white blood cell count, RBC red blood cell count, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, GGT γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time