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Table 3 HRs of death for all, liver-related and non-liver-related causes among positive people to antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV+) according to selected variables

From: Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of liver-related and non-liver-related deaths: a population-based cohort study in Naples, southern Italy

Characteristics All-cause deathsb (n = 154) Liver-related deaths (n = 41) Non-liver-related deathsb (n = 113)
N (%) HR (95% CI)c N (%) HR (95% CI)c N (%) HR (95% CI)c
Sex
 Female 64 (36.8) 1d 19 (10.9) 1d 45 (25.9) 1d
 Male 90 (55.6) 1.39 (0.99–1.96) 22 (13.6) 0.95 (0.47–1.92) 68 (42.0) 1.55 (1.04–2.29)
Age at enrolment
 Increase of 10 years 154 (45.8) 1.86 (1.48–2.35) 41 (12.2) 1.09 (0.77–1.54) 113 (33.6) 2.09 (1.55–2.83)
Hyperglycaemia/reduced kidney functiona
 None 105 (40.4) 1d 32 (12.3) 1d 73 (28.1) 1d
 Hyperglycaemia only 15 (40.5) 0.83 (0.48–1.43) 5 (13.5) 0.79 (0.26–2.40) 10 (27.0) 0.79 (0.40–1.58)
 Reduced kidney function 28 (90.3) 1.54 (0.92–2.60) 2 (6.5) 0.32 (0.08–1.29) 26 (83.9) 2.51 (1.36–4.62)
 Both 5 (71.4) 1.86 (0.76–4.57) 2 (28.6) 5.83 (1.35–25.16) 3 (42.9) 0.79 (0.22–2.83)
FIB-4 index scorea
  < 1.45 19 (18.5) 1d 1 (1.0) 1d 18 (17.5) 1d
 1.45–3.25 78 (50.3) 1.25 (0.71–2.19) 12 (7.7) 6.66 (0.79–56.51) 66 (42.6) 0.86 (0.46–1.59)
  > 3.25 56 (72.7) 1.96 (1.00–3.82) 28 (36.4) 39.96 (4.73–337.54) 28 (36.4) 0.49 (0.21–1.17)
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, eGFR Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, HR hazard ratio
  2. aThe sum does not add up to the total because of missing values; bNon-natural causes of death (ICD-10 codes: S00-T98) excluded; cEstimated using Fine-Gray models adjusted for sex, age at enrolment, presence of hyperglycaemia (fasting plasma glucose > 126 mg/dL) or reduced kidney function (eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73m2), FIB-4 index score, and HCV RNA status; dReference category