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Table 2 Comparison of severity and radiological characteristics in both training and test cohort

From: A novel CT-based radiomics in the distinction of severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia

radiological characteristics Training cohort p value Test cohort p value p value*
Non-severe (n = 77) Severe (n = 28)   Non-severe (n = 33) Severe (n = 12)   
Number of lesions 11.7 ± 7.9 21.8 ± 10.1 <  0.001 11.6 ± 8.5 18.6 ± 6.6 0.009 0.576
CT score    <  0.001    <  0.001 0.982
 1 20 (26.0) 0 (0.0)   9 (27.3) 0 (0.0)   
 2 20 (26.0) 0 (0.0)   8 (24.2) 0 (0.0)   
 3 21 (27.3) 2 (7.1)   10 (30.3) 1 (8.3)   
 4 16 (20.8) 26 (92.9)   6 (18.2) 11 (91.7)   
Distribution of lesions    0.085    0.450 0.767
 Left lung 4 (5.2) 0 (0.0)   2 (6.1) 0 (0.0)   
 Right lung 8 (10.4) 0 (0.0)   2 (6.1) 0 (0.0)   
 Both lungs 65 (84.4) 28 (100.0)   29 (87.9) 12 (100.0)   
Pure GGO    0.445    0.669 0.999
 Absence 8 (13.4) 5 (17.9)   4 (13.2) 2 (16.7)   
 Presence 69 (89.6) 23 (82.1)   29 (87.8) 10 (83.3)   
Consolidation    0.213    0.204 0.999
 Absence 61 (79.2) 28 (100.0)   26 (78.8) 12 (100.0)   
 Presence 16 (20.8) 0 (0.0)   7 (21.2) 0 (0.0)   
GGO with consolidation    0.013    0.027 0.482
 Absence 22 (28.6) 1 (3.6)   13 (39.4) 0 (0.0)   
 Presence 55 (71.4) 27 (96.4)   20 (60.6) 12 (100.0)   
Crazy-paving pattern    0.005    0.344 0.089
 Absence 36 (46.8) 4 (14.3)   9 (27.3) 1 (8.3)   
 Presence 41 (53.2) 24 (85.7)   24 (72.7) 11 (91.7)   
Halo sign    0.012    0.228 0.823
 Absence 11 (14.3) 11 (39.3)   4 (12.1) 4 (33.3)   
 Presence 66 (85.7) 17 (60.7)   29 (87.9) 8 (66.7)   
Reversed halo sign    0.861    0.576 0.999
 Absence 63 (81.8) 24 (85.7)   26 (78.8) 11 (91.7)   
 Presence 14 (18.2) 4 (14.3)   7 (21.2) 1 (8.3)   
Interlobular septal thickening    0.072    0.109 0.148
 Absence 30 (39.0) 5 (17.9)   9 (27.3) 0 (0.0)   
 Presence 47 (61.0) 23 (82.1)   24 (72.7) 12 (100.0)   
Air bronchogram    0.087    0.344 0.546
 Absence 26 (33.8) 4 (14.3)   9 (27.3) 1 (8.3)   
 Presence 51 (66.2) 24 (85.7)   24 (72.7) 11 (91.7)   
Pleura effusion    0.999    0.593 0.999
 Absence 74 (96.1) 27 (96.4)   33 (100.0) 11 (91.7)   
 Presence 3 (3.9) 1 (3.6)   0 (0.0) 1 (8.3)   
Rad-scorea −3.5 (−4.2, −1.9) 1.2 (0.3, 2.1) <  0.001 −2.9 [−3.7, −1.7] −0.1 (−1.2, 1.5) <  0.001 0.613
  1. *Represents the comparisons of features between training and test cohorts
  2. a Data are showed as medians (IQR 25–75)