Skip to main content

Table 1 Background Characteristics of the Study Participants

From: Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children in Kassena-Nankana districts of Northern Ghana

Variable Number of children
n (%)
Proportion with carriage
n (%)
Unadjusted OR (95%CI) P-value
Sex
 Male 88 (45.6) 32 (36.4) 1.36 (0.75–2.49) 0.313
 Female 105 (54.4) 31 (29.5)  
Age (years)
 5—7 65 (33.7) 26 (40.0) 2.11 (0.93–4.78) 0.191
 8—10 78 (40.4) 25 (32.1) 1.49 (0.67–3.34)
 11—12 50 (25.9) 12 (24.0)  
Childhood Immunization
Yes 190 (98.4) 62 (32.6)   0.979
No 3 (1.6) 1 (33.3) 1.03 (0.09–11.6)
Received PCV-13
 Yes 47 (24.4) 18 (38.3) 1.39 (0.7–2.76) 0.342
 No 146 (75.6) 45 (30.8)  
Symptoms of RTI
 Yes 37 (19.2) 14 (37.8) 1.33 (0.63–2.8) 0.453
 No 156 (80.8) 49 (31.4)  
Antibiotics taken
 Yes 3 (1.6) 1 (33.3) 1.03 (0.09–11.6) 0.979
 No 190 (98.4) 62 (32.6)  
Household size
  < =7 109 (56.5) 37 (33.9) 0.56 (0.49–0.63) 0.660
  > 7 84 (43.5) 26 (30.9)   
Total 193 63 (32.6)   
  1. *Carriage proportions and p-values were calculated using the Chi-square test. Childhood immunizations vaccines; Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, Polio, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Pneumococcal, Rotavirus, Measles, Yellow fever and Men-A