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Table 1 Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 156) from Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 2012 (n = 84) and 2017 (n = 72)

From: Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiological typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia, 2012 and 2017

   2012 (n = 84) 2017 (n = 72) Total (n = 156)
   S Ia Rb S Ia Rb S Ia Rb
CRO N 84 NA 0 72 NA 0 156 NA 0
  %
(95% CI)
100
(95.7–100)
NA 0
(0–4.3)
100
(95.0–100)
NA 0
(0–5.0)
100
(97.7–100)
NA 0
(0–2.3)
CFM N 84 NA 0 71 NA 1 155 NA 1
  %
(95% CI)
100
(95.7–100)
NA 0
(0–4.3)
98.6
(92.5–100)
NA 1.4
(0–7.5)
99.4
(96.6–100)
NA 0.6
(0.01–3.5)
SPC N 84 NA 0 72 NA 0 156 NA 0
  %
(95% CI)
100
(95.7–100)
NA 0
(0–4.3)
100
(95.0–100)
NA 0
(0–5.0)
100
(97.7–100)
NA 0
(0–2.3)
AZM N 83 NA 1 72 NA 0 155 NA 1
  %
(95% CI)
98.8
(93.5–100)
NA 1.2
(0.03–6.5)
100
(95–100)
NA 0
(0–5.0)
99.4
(96.6–100)
NA 0.6
(0.01–3.5)
CIP N 12 0 72 5 1 66 17 1 138
  %
(95% CI)
14.3
(7.6–23.6)
0
(0–4.3)
85.7
(76.4–92.4)
6.9
(2.3–15.4)
1.4
(0.04–7.5)
91.7
(82.8–96.9)
10.9
(6.5–16.9)
0.6
(0.01–3.5)
88.5
(82.4–93.1)
PEN N 6 52 26 3 34 35 9 86 61
  %
(95% CI)
7.1
(2.6–14.9)
61.9
(50.7–72.3)
31.0
(21.4–42.0)
4.2
(0.9–11.7)
47.2
(35.3–59.3)
48.6
(36.6–60.7)
5.8
(2.7–10.7)
55.1
(46.9–63.1)
39.1
(31.4–47.2)
TET N ND ND ND 18 13 41 Data available only in 2017
  %
(95% CI)
ND ND ND 25
(15.5–36.6)
18.1
(10.0–29.0)
56.9
(44.7–68.5)
KAN N 47 33 4 ND ND ND Data available only in 2012
  %
(95% CI)
56
(44.7–66.8)
39.3
(28.8–50.6)
4.7
(1.3–11.7)
ND ND ND
GEN N 83 1 0 69 2 1 152 3 1
  %
(95% CI)
98.8
(93.5–199)
1.2
(0.03–6.5)
0
(0–4.3)
95.8
(88.3–99.1)
2.8
(0.4–9.7)
1.4
(0.04–7.5)
97.4
(93.5–99.3)
2
(0.4–5.6)
0.6
(0.01–3.5)
   n = 75 n = 72 n = 147
   Negative/Positive
PPNG N 60 15 55 17 115 32
  % (95% CI) 80 (69.2–88.4) 20 (11.7–30.8) 76.4 (64.9–85.6) 23.6 (14.4–35.1) 78.2 (70.7–84.6) 21.8 (15.4–29.4)
  1. S, susceptible; I, susceptible, increased exposure; R, resistant; CRO, ceftriaxone; CFM, cefixime; AZM, azithromycin; SPC, spectinomycin; CIP, ciprofloxacin; PEN, benzylpenicillin; TET, tetracycline; KAN, kanamycin; PPNG, penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae; n, number of isolates; CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable; ND, Not determined
  2. aA microorganism is categorised as “Susceptible, Increased exposure” when there is a high likelihood of therapeutic success because exposure to the agent is increased by adjusting the dosing regimen or by its concentration at the site of infection (www.eucast.org/newsiandr/)
  3. bThe breakpoints (susceptible/resistant) from the EUCAST [48] were as follows: ceftriaxone and cefixime (MIC≤0.125/> 0.125 mg/L), azithromycin (MIC≤1/> 1 mg/L), spectinomycin (MIC≤64/> 64 mg/L), ciprofloxacin (MIC≤0.032/> 0.064 mg/L), benzylpenicillin (MIC≤0.064/> 1.0 mg/L), and tetracycline (MIC≤0.5/> 1.0 mg/L). Previously published breakpoints were used for gentamicin (MIC≤4/> 16 mg/L [49]) and kanamycin (MIC≤4/≥16 mg/L) [50, 51]