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Table 1 Characteristics for hospitalised patients with Gram-negative UTIs according to presence of bacteraemia and carbapenem resistance

From: Burden of illness in US hospitals due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative urinary tract infections in patients with or without bacteraemia

Characteristic Overall, N = 47,496 With bacteraemia, n = 11,629 Without bacteraemia, n = 35,867
CR, n = 2076 CS, n = 45,420 P value CR, n = 201 CS, n = 11,428 P value CR, n = 1875 CS, n = 33,992 P value
Age, years
Mean (SD) 69.1 (15.36) 68.9 (16.7) 0.563 68.6 (14.88) 68.34 (15.88) 0.816 69.15 (15.41) 69.09 (16.91) 0.859
Median (Q1–Q3) 71 (61.0–81.0) 72 (60.0–82.0) 0.335 70 (63.0–80.0) 70 (59.0–81.0) 0.962 71 (60.0–81.0) 72 (60.0–83.0) 0.111
Minimum, Maximum 18, 89 18, 89   19, 89 18, 89   18, 89 18, 89  
Sex, n (%)
Female 968 (46.6) 30,479 (67.1) < 0.001 77 (38.3) 6679 (58.4) < 0.001 891 (47.5) 23,800 (70.0) < 0.001
Male 1108 (53.4) 14,941 (32.9)   124 (61.7) 4749 (41.6)   984 (52.5) 10,192 (30.0)  
Race, n (%)
White 1597 (76.9) 33,861 (74.6) < 0.001 155 (77.1) 8190 (71.7) 0.073 1442 (76.9) 25,671 (75.5) 0.004
Black 319 (15.4) 6570 (14.5)   31 (15.4) 1706 (14.9)   288 (15.4) 4864 (14.3)  
Other 151 (7.3) 4527 (10.0)   15 (7.5) 1388 (12.1)   136 (7.3) 3139 (9.2)  
Unable to determine 9 (0.4) 462 (1.0)   0 (0.0) 144 (1.3)   9 (0.5) 318 (0.9)  
Admission source, n (%)
Non-healthcare facility point of origin 1481 (71.3) 34,750 (76.5) < 0.001 136 (67.7) 9133 (79.9) < 0.001 1345 (71.7) 25,617 (75.4) 0.002
Transfer from other facility/hospital 214 (10.3) 3970 (8.7)   19 (9.5) 720 (6.3)   195 (10.4) 3250 (9.6)  
Transfer from SNF/ intermediate care facility (clinic) 308 (14.8) 5499 (12.1)   37 (18.4) 1217 (10.7)   271 (14.5) 4282 (12.6)  
Other/unavailable 73 (3.5) 1201 (2.6)   9 (4.5) 358 (3.1)   64 (3.4) 843 (2.5)  
Admission type, n (%)
Elective 154 (7.4) 2844 (6.3) < 0.001 13 (6.5) 379 (3.3) 0.015 141 (7.5) 2465 (7.3) 0.022
Emergency 1664 (80.2) 38,227 (84.2)   166 (82.6) 10,233 (89.5)   1498 (79.9) 27,994 (82.4)  
Trauma centre 8 (0.4) 191 (0.4)   0 (0.0) 17 (0.2)   8 (0.4) 174 (0.5)  
Urgent 245 (11.8) 4042 (8.9)   22 (10.9) 781 (6.8)   223 (11.9) 3261 (9.6)  
Information not available 5 (0.2) 116 (0.3)   0 (0.0) 18 (0.2)   5 (0.3) 98 (0.3)  
Baseline CCI Score
Mean (SD) 3.5 (2.6) 2.9 (2.5) < 0.001 3.3 (2.7) 2.7 (2.5) 0.002 4.0 (2.6) 3.0 (2.5) < 0.001
Median (Q1–Q3) 3 (2.0–5.0) 2 (1.0–4.0) < 0.001 3 (2.0–5.0) 2 (1.0–4.0) 0.001 3 (2.0–5.0) 2 (1.0–4.0) < 0.001
Minimum, Maximum 0, 15 0, 18   0, 13 0, 17   0, 15 0, 18  
Total number of patients with at least one comorbidity, n (%) 1874 (90) 38,176 (84) < 0.001 174 (87) 9378 (82) 0.098 1700 (91) 28,798 (85) < 0.001
Baseline Charlson comorbidities, n (%)
Renal disease 783 (37.7) 13,423 (29.6) < 0.001 76 (37.8) 3387 (29.6) 0.012 707 (37.7) 10,036 (29.5) < 0.001
Chronic pulmonary disease 680 (32.8) 12,712 (28.0) < 0.001 47 (23.4) 2554 (22.4) 0.727 633 (33.8) 10,158 (29.9) < 0.001
Congestive heart failure 651 (31.4) 12,161 (26.8) < 0.001 48 (23.9) 2544 (22.3) 0.584 603 (32.2) 9617 (28.3) < 0.001
Peripheral vascular disease 277 (13.3) 4680 (10.3) < 0.001 18 (9.0) 911 (8.0) 0.610 259 (13.8) 3769 (11.1) < 0.001
Cerebrovascular disease 248 (12.0) 4771 (10.5) 0.037 21 (10.5) 847 (7.4) 0.104 227 (12.1) 3924 (11.5) 0.458
Myocardial infarction 222 (10.7) 5284 (11.6) 0.191 21 (10.5) 1392 (12.2) 0.456 201 (10.7) 3892 (11.4) 0.333
Diabetes without chronic complication 681 (32.8) 15,043 (33.1) 0.765 62 (30.9) 3913 (34.2) 0.314 619 (33.0) 11,130 (32.7) 0.808
Diabetes with chronic complication 289 (13.9) 4996 (11.0) < 0.001 21 (10.5) 1217 (10.7) 0.927 268 (14.3) 3779 (11.1) < 0.001
Mild liver disease 121 (5.8) 2916 (6.4) 0.281 10 (5.0) 870 (7.6) 0.161 111 (5.9) 2046 (6.0) 0.861
Moderate or severe liver disease 52 (2.5) 930 (2.1) 0.152 7 (3.5) 240 (2.1) 0.178 45 (2.4) 690 (2.0) 0.271
Dementia 272 (13.1) 5333 (11.7) 0.060 25 (12.4) 1205 (10.5) 0.387 247 (13.2) 4128 (12.1) 0.185
Hemiplegia or paraplegia 330 (15.9) 2469 (5.4) < 0.001 29 (14.4) 413 (3.6) 0.000 301 (16.1) 2056 (6.1) < 0.001
Rheumatic disease 85 (4.1) 1987 (4.4) 0.541 8 (4.0) 489 (4.3) 0.835 77 (4.1) 1498 (4.4) 0.537
Peptic ulcer disease 33 (1.6) 793 (1.8) 0.594 3 (1.5) 156 (1.4) 0.877 30 (1.6) 637 (1.9) 0.393
Any malignancy 209 (10.1) 4548 (10.0) 0.936 23 (11.4) 1170 (10.2) 0.577 186 (9.9) 3378 (9.9) 0.980
Metastatic solid tumour 111 (5.4) 1967 (4.3) 0.027 11 (5.5) 484 (4.2) 0.389 100 (5.3) 1483 (4.4) 0.046
AIDS/HIV 6 (0.3) 158 (0.4) 0.655 2 (1.0) 49 (0.4) 0.228 4 (0.2) 109 (0.3) 0.419
  1. AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, CR Carbapenem resistant, CS Carbapenem susceptible, HIV Human immune-deficiency virus, SD Standard deviation, SNF Skilled nursing facility, UTI Urinary tract infection