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Table 3 Virological discordance and associated risk factors among HAART users in Mekelle Hospital and Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (n = 260)

From: Immunological and virological discordance among people living with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Characteristics Virological discordance Binary logistic regression Multiple logistic regression
Yes n (%)) P-value COR(95% CI) P-value AOR (95% CI)
Gender
 Male 16 (14.7) 0.007 3.54 (1.40–8.93) 0.029 1.71 (1.13–10.10)
 Female 7 (4.6)   Ref   Ref
Age (years) at HAART initiation
< 35 13 (15.5) 0.012 3.04 (1.27–7.26) 0.007 4.25 (1.48–12.23)
 > 35 10 (5.7)   Ref   Ref
Age (years) at 36 months median time of HAART follow up
< 39 19 (13.5) 0.290 1.53 (0.70–3.36)   
 < 39 11 (9.2)   Ref   
Residence
 Rural 7 (14.3) 0.143 2.03 (0.787–5.25)   
 Urban 16 (7.6)   Ref   
Chronic non-communicable diseasesa
 Yes 3 (25.0) 0.079*    
 No 20 (8.1)    
History of TB co-infection
 Yes 2 (4.7) 0.388*    
 No 21 (9.7)    
Opportunistic infections (other than TB)b
 Yes 14 (9.8) 0.663 1.30 (0.54–3.13)   
 No 9 (7.7)   Ref   
HBV co-infection (n= 139)
 Yes 2 (18.2) 0.274*    
 No 11 (8.6)    
HCV co-infection (n= 64)
 Yes 1 (50.0) 0.137*    
 No 8 (12.9)    
WHO clinical stages at baseline
 I and II 12 (9.7) 0.653 1.22 (0.52–2.87)   
 III and IV 11 (8.1)   Ref   
History of malnutrition
 Yes 10 (12.0) 0.217 1.73 (0.73–4.12)   
 No 13 (7.3)   Ref   
Regimen given (n= 257)
 TDF basedc 11 (5.6) 0.003 0.26 (0.11–0.64) 0.028 0.30 (0.10–0.88)
 AZT basedd 11 (18.3)   Ref   Ref
CD4+ count (cell/μl) at baseline
< 100 5 (6.5) 0.390 0.64 (0.23–1.78)   
 > 100 18 (9.8)   Ref   
CD4+ count (cell/μl) at 36 months median time of HAART follow up
< 384 16 (12.3) 0.056 2.47 (0.98–6.21) 0.340 1.71 (0.57–5.11)
 > 384 7 (5.4)   Ref   Ref
Adherence to treatmente
 Good 16 (6.6) 0.000 0.11 (0.04–0.33) 0.003 0.12 (0.030–0.48)
 Fair/poor 7 (38.9)   Ref   Ref
Educational level
 No education 5 (7.9) 0.607 1.37 (0.42–4.50)   
 Primary 11 (13.9) 0.063 2.57 (0.95–6.94)   
 Secondary and above 7 (5.9)   Ref   
  1. Note: *P-value is determined by Fisher’s exact test; COR Crude odds ratio, AOR Adjusted odds ratio, TB Tuberculosis, HBV Hepatitis B virus, HCV Hepatitis C virus; a Includes Hypertension and Diabetic mellitus. b Includes: oral/esophageal candidiasis; Pneumonias; Diarrhea; Zoster e.t.c. c Drugs used concomitantly with TDF (Tenofovir) were: 3TC (lamivudine) + EFV (efaverinz) / NVP (Nevirapine). d Drugs used concomitantly with AZT (zidovudin); were: AZT+ 3TC+ NVP/ EFV. e Drugs used concomitantly with ABC (abacabir) were: 3TC and EFV