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Table 2 The distribution of blood oxygen saturation level and disease outcome in patients with COVID-19

From: Sociodemographic determinants and clinical risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity: a cross-sectional analysis of over 200,000 patients in Tehran, Iran

Characteristics SpO2 ≤ 93% SpO2 > 93% P value Deceased Survived P value
n % n % n % n %
Age (years)
 0–9 3158 3.2 5717 5.4 < 0.001 311 1.5 8564 4.6 < 0.001
 10–19 791 0.8 2767 2.6 110 0.5 3448 1.9
 20–29 3094 3.1 10601 10.0 234 1.1 13461 7.3
 30–39 9067 9.1 20610 19.4 695 3.4 28982 15.7
 40–49 12241 12.3 18034 16.9 1342 6.6 28933 15.6
 50–59 17845 18.0 16464 15.5 2625 12.8 31684 17.1
 60–69 20928 21.1 14881 14.0 4622 22.6 31187 16.8
 70–79 17684 17.8 10258 9.6 5110 25.0 22832 12.3
 80 and over 14353 7.0 7161 3.5 5425 26.5 16089 8.7
Sex
 Women 43053 43.4 50559 47.5 < 0.001 8326 40.7 85286 46.1 < 0.001
 Men 56108 56.6 55934 52.5 12148 59.3 99894 53.9
Residing area
 West 32089 32.4 37805 35.5 < 0.001 6159 30.1 63735 34.4 < 0.001
 Central, South 19738 19.9 29566 27.8 4707 23.0 44597 24.1
 North, East 47334 47.7 39122 36.7 9608 46.9 76848 41.5
Positive history of smoking 1522 1.5 1634 1.5 0.99 316 1.5 2840 1.5 0.91
Positive history of opioids 1075 1.1 826 0.8 < 0.001 275 1.3 1626 0.9 < 0.001
Positive history of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 39671 40.0 28746 27.0 < 0.001 7154 34.9 61263 33.1 < 0.001
Underlying diseases
 Diabetes 12012 12.1 8163 7.7 < 0.001 3188 15.6 16987 9.2 < 0.001
 Hypertension 13164 13.3 7682 7.2 < 0.001 3241 15.8 17605 9.5 < 0.001
 CVD 10960 11.1 8395 7.9 < 0.001 3148 15.4 16207 8.8 < 0.001
 Cancer 2133 2.2 1936 1.8 < 0.001 786 3.8 3283 1.8 < 0.001
 Asthma 1590 1.6 1144 1.1 < 0.001 271 1.3 2463 1.3 0.93
 Chronic respiratory diseases 2023 2.0 1133 1.1 < 0.001 556 2.7 2600 1.4 < 0.001
 Chronic liver diseases 466 0.5 498 0.5 0.93 141 0.7 823 0.4 < 0.001
 Chronic kidney diseases 2488 2.5 1765 1.7 < 0.001 920 4.5 3333 1.8 < 0.001
 Chronic neurological diseases 1120 1.1 767 0.7 < 0.001 351 1.7 1536 0.8 < 0.001
 Chronic immune deficiency diseases 303 0.3 323 0.3 0.92 68 0.3 558 0.3 0.44
 Chronic haematological diseases 505 0.5 508 0.5 0.29 158 0.8 855 0.5 < 0.001
 HIV/AIDS 86 0.1 68 0.1 0.05 32 0.2 122 0.1 < 0.001
Clinical presentations
 Fever 37864 38.2 35515 33.3 < 0.001 7134 34.8 66245 35.8 0.008
 Cough 45873 46.3 49765 46.7 0.03 7943 38.8 87695 47.4 < 0.001
 Muscle ache 27006 27.2 34088 32.0 < 0.001 4700 23.0 56394 30.5 < 0.001
 Difficulty breathing 55060 55.5 33884 31.8 < 0.001 12839 62.7 76105 41.1 < 0.001
 Chest pain 2692 2.7 2617 2.5 < 0.001 566 2.8 4743 2.6 0.08
 Loss of smell 1730 1.7 2234 2.1 < 0.001 250 1.2 3714 2.0 < 0.001
 Loss of taste 1149 1.2 1349 1.3 0.02 169 0.8 2329 1.3 < 0.001
 Loss of appetite 5476 5.5 4638 4.4 < 0.001 1110 5.4 9004 4.9 < 0.001
 Nausea 4915 5.0 5188 4.9 0.37 793 3.9 9310 5.0 < 0.001
 Diarrhea 2621 2.6 3719 3.5 < 0.001 424 2.1 5916 3.2 < 0.001
 Headache 4940 5.0 6207 5.8 < 0.001 691 3.4 10456 5.6 < 0.001
 Vertigo 1839 1.9 1957 1.8 0.77 356 1.7 3440 1.9 0.23
 Impaired consciousness 6015 6.1 2061 1.9 < 0.001 3213 15.7 4863 2.6 < 0.001
 Seizure 262 0.3 415 0.4 < 0.001 67 0.3 610 0.3 0.95
 Paresis 429 0.4 371 0.3 0.002 132 0.6 668 0.4 < 0.001
 Paraplegia 143 0.1 113 0.1 0.01 44 0.2 212 0.1 < 0.001
 Skin lesions 89 0.1 112 0.1 0.26 16 0.1 185 0.1 0.34
Positive chest CT findings 66027 66.6 45819 43.0 < 0.001 13408 65.5 98438 53.2 < 0.001
Admitted to ICU 23912 24.1 12780 12.0 < 0.001 11011 53.8 25681 13.9 < 0.001
  1. n number of patients in each sub-category, % percentage of patients in each sub-category; P-value obtained from Pearson Chi-Square test