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Table 1 Backgrounds of patients with COVID-19 among the eligible studies

From: Favipiravir for the treatment of patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study, year (Country) Observational period Intervention Comparator Dose of favipiravir
1. First day
2. Following days
Duration of favipiravir No. of participants Sex-Male, n (%) Age,
median (IQR), years
Severity of COVID-19, n (%) Times between onset to the initiation of treatment
Randomized-controlled study
 Chen C, 2020 [16]
(China)
Feb. 20 to Mar. 1, 2020 Favipiravir Umifenovir 1. 3200 mg
2. 1200 mg
10 days 236 110 (46.6) ≥ 65, n (%)
70 (29.7)
Moderate, 88.6%
Severe 10.2%
Critical, 1.3%
 Lou Y, 2020 [17]
(China)
Feb 3. - Favipiravir Baloxavir marboxil
or
Control
1. 1600 mg
or 2200 mg
2. 1800 mg
14 days 29 21 (72.4) Mean (SD), 52.5 (12.5)
 Ivashchenko AA, 2020 [18]
(Russian Federation)
April and May 2020 Favipiravir SOC 1. 3200 mg
2. 1200 mg
or
1. 3600 mg
2. 1600 mg
14 days 60 aged 60 and older Moderate COVID-19 pneumonia
 Doi Y, 2020 [19]
(Japan)
March 2–May 18, 2020 Favipiravir Early (day 1) vs. Late (day 6) treatments 1. 3200 mg
2. 1600 mg
Up to 19 dose over 69 54 (61.4) 50 (38–64.5) Asymptomatic or mild
Before-after nonrandomized controlled study
 Cai Q, 2020 [20]
(China)
Jan. 30 - Feb. 14, 2020 Favipiravir Lopinavir/ritonavir 1. 3200 mg
2. 1200 mg
14 days 80 35 (43.8) 47 (35.75–61) Moderate
Observational study or Case series
 Rattanaumpawan P, 2020 [21] (Thailand) Jan. 1 to April 30, 2020 Favipiravir Clinical improvement on day 7 examining a loading dose   274 39 (61.9) 48 (22–85) NEWS2 score-median (IQR), 4 (4–5) Median, 8 (0–28) days
 Yamamura H, 2020 [22]
(Japan)
April 2–27, 2020 Favipiravir & methylprednisoloneb 1. 3600 mg 2. 1600 mg 14 days 13 9 (69) Mean (SD), 63 (12) Severe requiring MV 8.7 days (range, 4–13)
 Doi K, 2020 [23]
(Japan)
April 6–21, 2020 Favipiravir & nafamostat mesylate 1. 3600 mg 2. 1600 mg 14 days 11 10 (91) 68 (60–69) Admitted to ICU
 Murohashi K, 2020 [24]
(Japan)
NA Favipiravir & methylprednisolonec 1. 3600 mg
2. 1600 mg
14 days 11 8 (72.7) 70 (45–82) severe and required oxygen administration or SpO2 ≤ 93% to admission, 6.4 daysa
 Çalik BaŞaran N, et al. [25]
(Turkey)
March 20–April 30, 2020 Favipiravir HQ only, HQ plus AZ 174 91 (52.3) 45.5 (range, 19–92)
≥65 years, n (%), 24 (13.8)
Mild, 20.1%
Moderate, 61.5%
Severe, 18.4%
to admission, 3 days (0–14) a
 Yaylaci S, et al. [26]
(Turkey)
March 25 – May 5, 2020 Favipiravir at least 5 days 62 36 (58.1) Median (range), 64 (37–89) Mild or moderate, 72.6%; Severe, 27.4%
  1. During the study, patients in all groups were allowed to use pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment. Patients in the favipiravir groups were not allowed to use other antiviral or antimalarial drugs
  2. IQR inter quartile range, SOC standard of care, MV mechanical ventilation; a time from onset to the admission
  3. b Methylprednisolone (1000 mg for 3 days) begun from 5th day from the initiation of favipiravir
  4. c Methylprednisolone (80 mg/day for 3 days), followed by 250 mg/day for 3 days
  5. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SpO2 blood oxygen saturation, HQ hydroxychloroquine, AZ azithromycin, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, NEWS2 National Early Warning Score, NA not available