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Table 1 Characteristics of all 415 patients with severe COVID-19 and stratified into survivors and non-survivors

From: Risk factors for secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in severe coronavirus disease 2019 adult patients

  All(n = 415) Survivors(n = 195) Nonsurvivors(n = 220) P value
Gender, Male/Female, n (%) 244(58.80) /171(41.20) 106(54.36)/ 89(45.64) 138(62.73)/ 82(37.27) 0.0839
Age, years, Mean (SD) 62.63(13.49) 57.77(12.67) 66.93(12.74) < 0.0001
age, years, n(%)     < 0.0001
 <40 23(5.54) 15(7.69) 8(3.64)  
 40–60 137(33.01) 92(47.18) 45(20.45)  
  ≥ 60 255(61.45) 88(45.13) 167(75.91)  
ARDS, n(%) 258(62.93)/ 152(37.07)a;5 75(38.46) /120(61.54) 183(85.12)/ 32(14.88); 5 < 0.0001
DIC, n(%) 20(5.00) /380(95.00); 15 1(0.52) /193(99.48); 1 19(9.22) /187(90.78); 14 < 0.0001
Liver injury, n(%) 78(19.50) /322(80.50); 15 26(13.40) /168(86.60); 1 52(25.24)/ 154(74.76); 14 0.0028
Heart injury, n(%) 104(26.00) /296(74.00); 15 12(6.19) /182(93.81); 1 92(44.66)/ 114(55.34); 14 < 0.0001
Kidney injury, n(%) 60(15.00) /340(85.00); 15 5(2.58) /189(97.42); 1 55(26.70)/ 151(73.30); 14 < 0.0001
Shock, n (%) 87(21.75) /313(78.25); 15 2(1.03)/ 192(98.97); 1 85(41.26)/ 121(58.74); 14 < 0.0001
Smoking history, n(%) 20(4.84) /393(95.16); 2 15(7.69)/ 180(92.31) 5(2.29)/ 213(97.71); 2 0.0107
Alcohol history, n(%) 21(5.08)/ 392(94.92); 2 15(7.69)/ 180(92.31) 6(2.75)/ 212(97.25);2 0.0225
Comobidities
 Diabetes, n(%) 79(19.13) /334(80.87); 2 30(15.38)/ 165(84.62) 49(22.48) /169(77.52); 2 0.0673
 Hypertension, n(%) 147(35.59)/ 266(64.41); 2 64(32.82)/ 131(67.18) 83(38.07)/ 135(61.93); 2 0.2657
 Chronic heart failure, n(%) 39(9.44) /374(90.56); 2 12(6.15)/ 183(93.85) 27(12.39)/ 191(87.61); 2 0.0306
 COPD, n(%) 13(3.15) /400(96.85); 2 3(1.54)/ 192(98.46) 10(4.59)/ 208(95.41); 2 0.0765
 Stroke, n(%) 26(6.30)/ 387(93.70); 2 10(5.13)/ 185(94.87) 16(7.34)/ 202(92.66); 2 0.3557
 Malignant Tumor, n(%) 19(4.60) /394(95.40); 2 10(5.13)/ 185(94.87) 9(4.13)/ 209(95.87); 2 0.6283
 Chronic liver disease, n(%) 14(3.39)/ 399(96.61); 2 5(2.56)/ 190(97.44) 9(4.13)/ 209(95.87); 2 0.3805
 Chronic kidey disease, n(%) 11(2.66) /402(97.34); 2 3(1.54)/ 192(98.46) 8(3.67)/ 210(96.33); 2 0.1793
 Hepatitis B, n(%) 15(3.62) /399(96.38); 1 7(3.59)/ 188(96.41) 8(3.65)/ 211(96.35); 1 0.9726
 HIV, n (%) 0(0.00) /414(100.00); 1 0(0.00)/ 195(100.00) 0(0.00)/ 219(100.00); 1 1.0000
 Autoimmue disease, n(%) 17(4.12) /396(95.88); 2 7(3.59)/ 188(96.41) 10(4.59)/ 208(95.41); 2 0.6105
Respiratory support, n(%)     < 0.0001
 Intranasal oxygen inhalation 146(37.15) 122(63.21) 24(12.00)  
 Mask oxygen Inhalation 18(4.58) 10(5.18) 8(4.00)  
  High Flow 67(17.05) 24(12.44) 43(21.50)  
  Non-invasive ventilation 75(19.08) 9(4.66) 66(33.00)  
  Invasive ventilaiton 53(13.49) 3(1.55) 50(25.00)  
  ECMO 4(1.02) 0(0.00) 4(2.00)  
 CRRT, n(%) 79(19.13) /334(80.87); 2 30(15.38)/ 165(84.62) 49(22.48)/ 169(77.52); 2 0.0673
 Inotropic support, n(%) 87(20.96)/328(79.03) 2(1.03)/ 193(98.97) 85(38.64)/ 135(61.36) < 0.0001
 Corticosteroid treatment, n(%) 226(54.45)/189(45.54) 85(43.59)/ 110(56.41) 141(64.09)/ 79(35.91) < 0.0001
Co-infection, n(%)
 Influenza A 401(97.33)/ 6(1.46); 8 193(98.97)/ 2(1.03) 208(95.85)/ 4(1.84); 8 0.0799
 Influenza B 402(97.57)/ 5(1.21); 8 195(100.00)/ 0(0.00) 207(95.39)/ 5(2.30); 8 0.0101
 Tuberculosis 8(1.94)/ 405(98.06); 2 3(1.54)/ 192(98.46) 5(2.29)/ 213(97.71); 2 0.8428
Symptoms and signs, n(%)
 heart rate, (per minute)     0.0002
   ≤ 100 37(15.42) 28(26.17) 9(6.77)  
  >100 200(83.33) 77(71.96) 123(92.48)  
  Total 240(100.00) 107(100.00) 133(100.00)  
 Nasal stuffiness 8(1.94)/ 405(98.06); 2 4(2.05) /191(97.95) 4(1.83) /214(98.17); 2 1.0000
 Nasal discharge 12(2.91) /401(97.09); 2 5(2.56)/ 190(97.44) 7(3.21)/ 211(96.79); 2 0.6960
 Sneezing 4(0.97) /408(99.03); 3 3(1.54)/ 192(98.46) 1(0.46)/ 216(99.54); 3 0.5414
 Sore throat 8(1.94) /405(98.06); 2 4(2.05)/ 191(97.95) 4(1.83)/ 214(98.17); 2 1.0000
 Cough 330(79.90) /83(20.10); 2 157(80.51)/ 38(19.49) 173(79.36)/ 45(20.64); 2 0.7700
 Sputum production 157(38.01)/ 256(61.99); 2 67(34.36)/ 128(65.64) 90(41.28)/ 128(58.72); 2 0.1478
 Chest tightness 264(63.92)/ 149(36.08); 2 113(57.95)/ 82(42.05) 151(69.27)/ 67(30.73); 2 0.0168
 Chest pain 12(2.91) /401(97.09); 2 6(3.08)/ 189(96.92) 6(2.75)/ 212(97.25); 2 0.8445
 Hemoptysis 7(1.69) /406(98.31); 2 4(2.05)/ 191(97.95) 3(1.38)/ 215(98.62); 2 0.8817
 Headache 13(3.15)/ 400(96.85); 2 10(5.13)/ 185(94.87) 3(1.38)/ 215(98.62); 2 0.0292
 Myalgia 49(11.86) /364(88.14); 2 29(14.87)/ 166(85.13) 20(9.17)/ 198(90.83); 2 0.0739
 Fatigue 165(40.05) /247(59.95); 3 78(40.21)/ 116(59.79) 87(39.91)/ 131(60.09); 2 0.9509
 Digestive symptoms 58(14.04)/ 355(85.96); 2 28(14.36)/ 167(85.64) 30(13.76)/ 188(86.24); 2 0.8615
 Discomfort of eye 1(0.24)/ 412(99.76); 2 1(0.51)/ 194(99.49) 0(0.00)/ 218(100.00); 2 0.4722
 Cyanosis 48(11.59) /366(88.41); 1 10(5.13)/ 185(94.87) 38(17.35)/ 181(82.65); 1 0.0001
 Rhonchial 26(6.30) /386(93.46); 3 13(6.67)/ 181(92.82) 13(5.96)/ 205(94.04); 2 1.0000
 Moist rales 76(18.40) /337(81.60); 2 33(16.92)/ 162(83.08) 43(19.72)/ 175(80.28); 2 0.4632
 SPO2(≤93%/>93%) 279(67.23)/ 136(32.77) 96(49.23)/ 99(50.77) 183(83.18)/ 37(16.82) < 0.0001
 Length of hospitalization, d 12.00(7.00,18.00); 15.00 (11.00,20.00) 10.00(4.00,15.00) < 0.0001
 Length of ICU, d 2.00(0.00,9.00); 0.00 (0.00,6.50); 3.00 (1.00,9.00); < 0.0001
 Temperature, °C 38.50(38.00,39.00) 38.50 (38.00,39.00) 38.50 (38.00,39.00) 0.5281
 arterial pressure, mmHg 87.00(79.83,92.83); 21 86.00 (78.00,91.33);2 88.00 (82.00,93.67); 19 0.0005
 heart rate, per mimute 89.00(81.00,100.00); 2 90.00 (82.00,100.00) 88.50 (80.00,102.00); 2 0.9356
 respiratory rate 22.00(20.00,26.00); 1 22.00 (20.00,26.00) 22.00 (20.00,28.00) 0.7331
  <24, (per minute) 251(60.48) 122(62.56) 129(58.64) 0.3642
  24–30, (per minute) 87(20.96) 40(20.51) 47(21.36)  
   ≥ 30, (per minute) 77(18.55) 33(16.92) 44(20.00)  
  Total 415(100.00) 195(100.00) 220(100.00)  
 SOFA 3.00(1.00,4.00); 4 2.00(1.00, 3.00) 3.00(2.00,5.00); 4 < 0.0001
 APACHEII 7.00(5.00,10.00); 4 6.00 (4.00,7.00) 9.00 (7.00,13.00); 4 < 0.0001
Laboratory Tests
 Lowest leukocyte, ×109/L 5.44(3.83, 8.50)b; 10 4.45 (3.43,5.91) 7.57 (4.63,11.60); 10 < 0.0001
 Lowest haemoglobin, g/L 109.00(88.00,123.00); 10 110.00 (91.00,124.00) 108.00 (86.00,122.00); 10 0.5267
 Lowest patelets, ×109/L 125.50(53.00,188.00);9 152.00 (86.00,217.00) 91.00 (42.00,165.00); 9 < 0.0001
 Lowest neutrophils, ×109/L 5.38(3.00,11.36); 14 3.55 (2.55,8.59) 6.99 (4.30,11.63); 14 < 0.0001
 Lowest lymphocyte, ×109/L 0.55(0.35,1.06); 11 0.86 (0.49,1.44) 0.44 (0.28,0.64); 11 < 0.0001
 Lowest fibrinogen, g/L 4.10(2.70,5.90); 22 4.50 (3.40,6.50);6 3.60 (2.20,5.30); 16 < 0.0001
 Lowest prealbumin, g/L 83.00(45.00,117.00); 10 104.00 (67.00,145.00); 1 64.00 (33.00,98.00); 9 < 0.0001
 Lowest albumin, g/L 28.00(25.10,31.40); 8 30.10 (27.60,34.40) 26.00 (23.45,28.70); 8 < 0.0001
 Peak D-Dimer, mg/L 10.06(1.15,42.82) 1.58 (0.63,14.04) 27.31 (7.60,58.76) < 0.0001
 Peak total bilirubin, μg/L 18.95(13.00,32.30); 13 15.40 (11.70,30.00); 2 22.50 (15.39,32.76); 11 0.0019
 Peak alanine aminotransferase, U/L 49.00(31.00,77.00); 12 48.00 (30.00,68.00) 50.50 (31.50,87.00); 12 0.1652
 Peak aspartate aminotransferase, U/L 43.00(29.00,72.00); 11 34.00 (24.00,50.00) 57.00 (36.00,108.00); 11 < 0.0001
 Peak blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 9.20(5.97,18.00); 14 6.66 (5.03,9.79); 1 14.90 (8.10,24.30); 13 < 0.0001
 Peak serum creatinine, μg/L 82.00(59.40,139.80); 13 70.70 (53.70,89.30) 120.70 (69.30,276.80); 13 < 0.0001
 Peak triglycerides, mmol/L 2.15(1.42,3.43); 14 2.16 (1.42,4.53);1 2.10 (1.41,3.27); 13 0.5062
 Peak ferritin, μg/L 927.22(492.02,2000.00); 18 600.08 (356.00,987.50);6 1675.09 (837.84,2000.00);12 < 0.0001
 Peak Interleukin −6, pg/mL 11.18(7.92,19.57); 26 9.32 (6.90,13.50); 9 13.89 (9.99,27.90); 17 < 0.0001
 Peak erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm/h 60.00(43.00,79.00); 22 61.00 (45.30,88.00); 4 59.35 (40.00,73.00); 18 0.0527
 Peak C-reactive protein, mg/L 122.60(30.50,160.00); 12 49.40 (8.70,121.90); 3 160.00 (111.00,160.40); 9 < 0.0001
 Peak procalcitonin, ng/mL 0.20(0.06,2.87); 17 0.07 (0.05,0.23); 4 1.08 (0.16,6.40); 13 < 0.0001
 Peak lactate dehydrogenase, U/L 429.00(274.00,699.00); 10 300.50 (221.00,403.00); 1 675.00 (464.00,1095.00); 9 < 0.0001
 Peak creatine kinase isoenzyme, U/L 27.00(17.00,66.00); 16 19.50 (14.00,51.00); 1 34.00 (20.00,84.00); 15 < 0.0001
 Peak Troponin, pg/mL 10.85(3.50,99.00); 13 4.40 (1.70,9.10); 1 70.50 (11.20,823.05); 12 < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: ARDS Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, DIC Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ECMO Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, CRRT Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy, ICU Intensive Care Unit, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation
  2. Data are expressee as: aNo. (%) yes/no; no. missing (if applicable); bMedian (range); no. missing (if applicable)
  3. P value compare between survivor group vs non-survivor group, P < 0.05 means had significantly different