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Table 1 General characteristics of enrolled patients

From: Comparison of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors with other antihypertensives in association with coronavirus disease-19 clinical outcomes

Study Study design Comorbidity Drug class Survivors Non-survivors Total (survivors + non-survivors) % poor outcome per drug class
Zhang et al., 2020 [6] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 181 7 188 3.7%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 848 92 940 9.8%
IP et al., 2020 [19] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 323 137 460 29.8%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 407 262 669 39.2%
Khera et al., 2020 [20] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEIs 2,042 319 2,361 13.5%
ARBs 1,881 345 2,226 15.5%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 2,880 466 3,346 13.9%
Richardson et al., 2020 [21] Case series HTN ACEIs 113 55 168 32.7%
ARBs 170 75 245 30.6%
Tan et al., 2020 [22] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 29 0 29 0.0%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 46 11 57 19.3%
Andrea et al., 2020 [23] Retrospective cohort HTN, HF, CAD, DM, CKD ACEIs 21 14 35 40.0%
ARBs 26 7 33 21.2%
BBs 29 21 50 42.0%
CCBs 16 9 25 36.0%
Thiazides 12 4 16 25.0%
Xian Zhou et al., 2020 [24] Retrospective cohort HTN, HF, CAD, DM, CKD ACEIARB 13 2 15 13.3%
Non-ACE/ARB 16 5 21 23.8%
Feng Zhou et al., 2020 [5] Retrospective cohort HTN, CAD ACEI/ARB 836 70 906 7.7%
Non-ACEI/ARB 1,540 272 1,812 15.0%
Pan et al., 2020 [25] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARB 37 4 41 9.8%
Non-ACE/ARB 178 63 241 26.1%
Cannata et al., 2020 [26] Prospective cohort Not mentioned ACEI/ARB 49 7 56 12.5%
Non-ACE/ARB 185 39 224 17.4%
Lam et al., 2020 [27] Prospective cohort HTN, CAD, DM, CKD ACEI/ARB 277 58 335 17.3%
Non-ACEI/ARB 217 62 279 22.2%
Selcuk et al., 2020 [28] Retrospective cohort HTN, HF, CAD, DM, CKD ACEI/ARB 43 31 74 41.9%
Non-ACE/ARB 35 4 39 10.3%
Amat-Santos et al., 2020 [29] Randomized clinical trial HTN ACEI/ARB 3 2 5 40.0%
Non-ACE/ARB 4 2 6 33.3%
Felice et al., 2020 [30] Prospective cohort HTN ACEIs 32 8 40 20.0%
ARBs 35 7 42 16.7%
Study Study design Comorbidity Drug class Non severe COVID-19 Severe COVID-19 Total (severe and non-severe COVID-19) % severe COVID-19 per drug class
Reynolds et al., 2020 [7] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEIs 445 139 584 23.8%
ARBs 468 161 629 25.6%
BBs 582 210 792 26.5%
CCBs 697 253 950 26.6%
Thiazides 399 116 515 22.5%
Li et al., 2020 [8] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEIs 9 3 12 25.0%
ARBs 13 11 24 45.8%
BBs 6 8 14 57.1%
CCBs 89 79 168 47.0%
Feng et al., 2020 [31] Prospective cohort HTN ACEIs 7 1 8 12.5%
ARBs 23 4 27 14.8%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 35 27 62 43.6%
Yang et al., 2020 [32] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 28 15 43 34.9%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 48 35 83 42.2%
Meng et al., 2020 [9] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 13 4 17 23.5%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 13 12 25 48.0%
Gao et al., 2020 [33] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 109 74 183 40.4%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 348 179 527 34.0%
Hu et al., 2020 [34] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 37 28 65 43.1%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 51 33 84 39.3%
Liu et al., 2020 [35] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEIs 1 1 2 50.0%
ARBs 7 3 10 30.0%
BBs 4 3 7 42.9%
CCBs 8 18 26 69.2%
Thiazides 3 0 3 0.0%
Zeng et al., 2020 [36] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 13 15 28 53.6%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 32 15 47 31.9%
Bravi et al., 2020 [37] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEIs 107 144 251 57.4%
ARBs 86 142 228 62.3%
Dauchet et al., 2020 [38] Retrospective cohort CVD ACEIs 14 13 27 48.2%
ARBs 8 21 29 72.4%
Feng Zhichao et al., 2020 [39] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 15 1 16 6.3%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 33 16 49 32.7%
Mancia et al., 2020 [40] Case control study CVD ACEIs 1,305 197 1,502 13.1%
ARBs 1,227 167 1,394 12.0%
BBs 1,556 270 1,826 14.8%
CCBs 1,230 216 1,446 14.9%
Thiazides 991 113 1,104 10.2%
Yan et al., 2020 [41] Case control study CVD ACEIs 4 14 18 77.8%
ARBs 58 93 151 61.6%
BBs 9 47 56 83.9%
CCBs 230 158 388 40.7%
Thiazides 14 21 35 60.0%
Senkal et al., 2020 [42] Retrospective cohort HTN, HF, CAD, DM, CKD ACEIs 41 11 52 21.2%
ARBs 36 16 52 30.8%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 30 22 52 42.3%
Liabeuf et al., 2020 [43] Retrospective cohort HTN, HF, CAD, DM, CKD ACEI/ARBs 44 52 96 54.2%
BBs 36 37 73 50.7%
CCBs 30 27 57 47.4%
Thiazides 28 30 58 51.7%
Sardu et al., 2020 [44] Prospective cohort HTN ACEIs 14 10 24 41.7%
ARBs 12 9 21 42.9%
CCBs 10 7 17 41.2%
Xiulan Liu et al., 2020 [45] Retrospective cohort HTN ACEI/ARBs 20 18 38 47.4%
CCBs 22 16 38 42.1%
Lopez-Otero et al., 2020 [46] Retrospective cohort HTN, CAD, DM ACEIs 23 6 29 20.7%
ARBs 43 7 50 14.0%
Golpe et al., 2020 [47] Retrospective cohort HTN, HF, CAD, DM, CKD ACEIs 20 12 32 37.5%
ARBs 53 36 89 40.5%
BBs 24 23 47 48.9%
CCBs 21 23 44 52.3%
Thiazides 36 30 66 45.5%
Xu et al., 2020 [48] Retrospective cohort HTN, HF, CAD, DM, CKD ACEI/ARBs 29 11 40 27.5%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 45 16 61 26.2%
Choi et al., 2020 [49] Case control study HTN ACEI/ARBs 859 33 892 3.7%
Non-ACEI/ARBs 384 44 428 10.3%
Total     24,759 6,036 30,795 19.6%
  1. Abbreviations: ACEI angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin-II receptor blockers, BBs beta-blockers, CAD coronary artery disease, CCBs calcium channel blockers, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVD cardiovascular diseases, DM diabetes, HF heart failure, HTN hypertension