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Table 3 Regression analyses of excess hospital charges and excess LOS attributable to antibiotic-resistant bacteria

From: The healthcare costs of antimicrobial resistance in Lebanon: a multi-centre prospective cohort study from the payer perspective

  Unstandardized beta 95% Confidence Interval R2 p-value
  Upper Lower  
Community-associated infection – Conventional method
Excess LOS post-infection, days 2.2 1.2 3.3 0.027 < 0.001
Excess hospital charges, $USD 889 378 1400 0.046 0.001
Healthcare-associated infection – “Post-infection HAI” method
Excess LOS post-infection, days 2.1 0.9 3.2 0.140 < 0.001
Excess hospital charges, $USD 1297 627 1966 0.274 < 0.001
Healthcare-associated infection – Matched method
Excess LOS post-infection, days 1.6 0.3 2.9 0.135 0.016
Excess hospital charges, $USD 1139 471 1807 0.229 0.001
  1. Linear regression models were used assuming linear distribution. Unstandardized beta coefficient, excess LOS post-infection and excess hospital charges displayed in the table are those for the key independent variable: infection due at least one resistant bacteria. The other independent variables included in the community-associated infection regression model were patient age, gender, Charlson co-morbidity index and previous antibiotic exposure. In the healthcare-associated infection analyses, “post HAIs” analysis the other independent variables included in the regression models were patient age, gender, Charlson co-morbidity index, previous exposure to antibiotic, transfer to the ICU, insertion of central venous catheter, insertion of urinary catheter, mechanical ventilation, days of mechanical ventilation, time to infection, appropriateness of antibiotic therapy. p value < 0.05 is considered significant
  2. Abbreviations: LOS, Length of stay; Coefficient, unstandardized Beta; CI, confidence interval; HAIs, healthcare –associated infections; ICU, intensive care unit