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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included studies in the meta analysis

From: Diagnostic value of neutrophil CD64, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 in sepsis: a meta-analysis

first author publication time country study design diagnostic criteria clinical setting biomarker sample size TP FP FN TN SEN
(%)
SPE
(%)
average age test method
Anand [23]a 2015 India PS culture+ ICU PCT 118 68 6 4 40 94.4 87 49.3 IF
      IL-6 118 46 5 26 41 63.9 89 49.3 ECLI
Anand [23] b 2015 India PS clinical,culture- ICU PCT 136 83 13 7 33 92.2 72 52.1 IF
      IL-6 136 42 12 48 34 47 73 52.1 ECLI
Bauer [26] 2016 America PS clinical ICU CD64 196 84 20 26 66 76.4 76.7   FCM
      PCT 216 88 25 32 71 73.1 74.2   IF
Cardelli [27] 2008 Italy PS clinical,culture+ ICU CD64 112 50 5 2 55 96 91.7 63 FCM
      PCT 112 49 27 3 33 94 70 63 IF
Castelli [28] 2004 Italy PS clinical,culture+ ICU PCT 49 21 2 13 13 61.7 86.7   IF
Cheval [29] 2000 France PS clinical ICU PCT 60 28 5 4 23 87.5 82.1 56.3 IF
Clec’h [25] a 2006 France PS clinical SICU PCT 67 28 9 3 27 91.7 74.2 63 IF
Clec’h [25] b 2006 France PS clinical MICU PCT 76 29 2 7 38 80.6 95 60.1 IF
Davis [30] 2006 America RS clinical,culture+ ED CD64 100 33 18 5 44 86.8 71   FCM
Dimoula [31] 2014 Belgium PS clinical ICU CD64 468 92 47 11 318 89.3 87.1 58.7 FCM
Du [32] 2003 China PS clinical ICU PCT 51 16 8 4 23 80 74.2 64.7 IF
      IL-6 51 17 8 3 23 85 74 64.7 EIA
Feng [33] 2012 China PS clinical ICU PCT 132 69 12 33 18 67.6 60   ELISA
Gaini [34] 2006 Denmark PS clinical GW PCT 93 56 9 18 10 75.7 52.6 63 IF
      IL-6 93 60 4 14 15 81.1 78.9 63 ECLI
Gamez-Diaz [35] 2011 Colombia PS clinical ED CD64 610 266 73 138 133 65.8 65   Leuko64 kit
Gerrits [36] 2013 Netherla-nds PS clinical ICU CD64 44 25 1 0 18 100 94.7 71.8 Leuko64 kit
Gibot [37] 2012 France PS clinical ICU CD64 300 130 7 24 139 84.4 95.2 61.5 FCM
      PCT 300 128 30 26 124 83.1 84.9 61.5 ECLI
Gros [38] 2012 France PS clinical, culture+ MICU CD64 293 93 16 55 129 62.8 89 59.5 Leuko64 kit
Gupta [24] a 2018 India PS culture+   PCT 242 193 5 3 41 98.5 89.1   ECLI
Gupta [24] b 2018 India PS clinical,culture-   PCT 109 55 10 8 36 87.3 78.3   ECLI
Harbarth [39] 2001 Switzerla-nd PS clinical ICU PCT 78 58 4 2 14 97 78   ECLI
      IL-6 78 40 5 20 13 67 72   ECLI
Hausfater [40] 2002 France PS clinical ED PCT 195 42 15 26 112 61.8 88.2 47 IFA
Hsu [41] 2011 China PS clinical, culture+ RICU CD64 66 49 1 6 10 89 90.9 68.3 FCM
      PCT 66 31 0 24 11 56.4 100 68.3 IF
Ivancević [16] 2008 Serbia PS clinical,culture+ ED PCT 98 42 15 16 25 72.4 62.5 54.7 IF
Jämsä [42] 2015 Finland PS clinical ICU CD64 42 27 1 0 14 100 93 64.4 FCM
Jekarl [43] 2012 Korea PS clinical ED PCT 177 58 13 20 86 74.4 86.7 51.5 ECLI
      IL-6 177 51 17 27 82 65.4 82.9 51.5 ECLI
Kofoed [44] 2007 Denmark PS clinical,culture+ ED/GW PCT 151 77 23 19 32 80.2 58.2   ECLI
Latour-Pérez [45] 2010 Spain PS clinical ICU PCT 114 53 5 19 37 73.6 88.1   IF
Lewis [46] 2015 UK RS clinical, culture+ ICU CD64 153 43 12 40 58 51.8 82.6   FCM
Mat-Nor [47] 2016 Malaysia PS clinical ICU PCT 239 93 20 71 55 57 73 47 IF
      IL-6 239 82 26 82 49 50 65 47 EI
Meynaar [48] 2011 Netherlands PS clinical,culture+ ICU PCT 76 31 9 1 35 97 80   IF
      IL-6 76 29 26 3 18 91 41   ECLI
Mokart [18] 2005 France PS clinical ICU PCT 50 13 10 3 24 81 72   ECLI
      IL-6 50 14 14 2 20 87.5 58.8   EIA
Muller [49] 2000 Switzerla-nd PS clinical MICU PCT 101 53 3 6 39 89.8 92.9   IFA
      IL-6 101 38 9 21 33 64.4 78.6   EIA
Muzlovic [17] 2016 Slovenia PS clinical,culture+ ICU CD64 32 25 1 0 6 100 85.7 61.8 Leuko64 kit
      PCT 32 21 0 4 7 81.8 100 61.8 IF
Papadimitriou [50] 2015 Greece PS clinical,culture+ ICU CD64 66 24 3 5 34 83 92   FCM
Righi [51] 2014 Italy PS clinical,culture+ ICU CD64 93 55 1 6 31 90.1 96.9 58.7 FCM
Ruokonen [52] 2002 Switzerla-nd PS clinical,culture+ ICU PCT 208 110 24 52 22 67.9 47.8   IF
Selberg [53] 2000 Germany PS clinical,culture+ ICU PCT 33 19 5 3 6 86 54 47.9 IF
      IL-6 33 19 5 3 6 86.4 54.5 47.9 EIA
Shokouhi [22] a 2017 Iran PS culture+   PCT 192 76 18 16 82 82.6 82 43.9 ELISA
Shokouhi [22] b 2017 Iran PS culture+   PCT 184 58 30 26 70 69.1 70 73.1 ELISA
Spoto [54] 2018 Italy PS clinical, culture+ ICU/GW PCT 159 60 1 49 49 55 98 70.5 IF
Suprin [55] 2000 France PS clinical. culture+ ICU PCT 95 49 6 26 14 65.3 70 57 IF
Talebi-Taher [20] 2014 Iran PS clinical ED PCT 100 44 14 6 36 88.8 71.1 76.3 IF
Tan [56] 2016 Malaysia PS clinical,culture+ ED CD64 51 34 1 8 8 80.9 88.9 53.7 FCM
Tromp [57] 2002 Netherla-nds PS culture+ ED PCT 342 49 120 6 167 89.1 58.2   IF
      IL-6 342 34 79 21 208 61.8 72.5   EI
Tsalik [58] 2012 America PS clinical,culture+ ED PCT 336 168 33 79 56 68 62.9   ECLI
      IL-6 336 144 29 103 60 58.3 67.4   ECLI
Wang [59] 2013 China RS culture+ ICU PCT 586 100 162 20 304 83.3 65.2   IF
Zhang [21] 2017 China PS clinical ICU PCT 70 36 6 14 14 72 70 92.6 ECLI
Huang [60] 2012 China PS clinical ICU PCT 72 40 3 9 20 82.3 84.9 66.2 ELISA
Lu [19] 2016 China PS clinical ICU CD64 420 111 35 19 255 85.1 87.8   FCM
Shao [61] 2014 China PS clinical ICU/RD CD64 87 63 4 6 14 91.3 77.8 54 FCM
Tang [62] 2017 China PS clinical ICU PCT 221 74 24 15 108 83.2 82.1 51.6 ECLI
    clinical ICU IL-6 221 67 77 22 55 75.3 41.2 51.6 ECLI
Wang [63] 2017 China PS clinical MD CD64 44 23 1 6 14 79.5 93.3 47.1 FCM
Xing [64] 2008 China PS clinical ED/GW/ICU PCT 149 84 6 8 51 91.3 89.5 67.3 IF
Xu [65] 2009 China PS clinical ICU/HD CD64 68 57 1 1 9 98.3 90   FCM
Zhang [66] 2012 China PS clinical   CD64 55 30 5 5 15 85.7 75 50.6 FCM
Zhao [67] 2017 China PS clinical ICU PCT 104 67 5 11 21 85.9 81.8 57.9 IF
Zhao [68] 2016 China RS clinical ED PCT 393 255 10 52 76 83.2 88.1 42 ECLI
      IL-6 393 249 14 58 72 81.1 83.7 42 EIA
Zhao [69] 2014 China PS clinical ED PCT 652 340 40 112 160 75.2 80 72 ELISA
      IL-6 652 366 78 86 122 81 61 72 EIA
  1. PS Prospective Study, RS Retrospective Study, ICU intensive care unit, SICU Surgical intensive care unit, MICU Medical Intensive Care Unit, RICU Respiratory intensive care unit, ED Emergency Department, GW General ward, RD Respiratory Department, HD Hematology Department, IF Immunofluorescence, FCM flow cytometer, ECLI Electrochemical immunoluminescence, EIA enzyme imrrmnoassay, ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay