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Table 3 Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood cellularity in patients with severe/critical COVID-19

From: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid characteristics and outcomes of invasively mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Genoa, Italy

  Total patients Patients with ARDSa/critical pulmonary infection
(IMVb)
Peripheral blood cellularity BALF cellularity or lung biopsy
Wu C et al. JAMA Int Med 2020 [13] 201 84
(N = 6, 2.9%)
>Neutrophils
< TCD4+ and TCD8+
No data
Chen T et al. BMJ 2020 [12] 274 196
(N = 17, 6.2%)
< Lymphocytes
>Neutrophils
No data
Chen G et al. J Clin Invest 2020 [21] 21 11
(N = 0)
< Lymphocytes
>Neutrophils
No data
Tang X et al. Chest 2020 [23] 73 36
(N = 14, 19.2%)
< Lymphocytes (TCD4+ and TCD8+) No data
Liao M et al. Nature Medicine 2020 [7] 9 6
(n.a.c)
No data >Macrophages
>Neutrophils
< T and NK Lymphocytes
Xu Z et al. Lancet Resp Med 2020 [14] 1 1
(N = 1, 100%)
< TCD4+ and TCD8+
Activated Lymphocytes
(HLA-DR+)
>Lymphocytes
Tian S et al. Mod Pathol 2020 [8] 4 4
(n.a.)
< Lymphocytes >Mononuclear cells
Carsana L et al. Lancet Infect Dis 2020 [24] 38 38
(n.a.)
No data >Macrophages
>Lymphocytes
  1. aARDS Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, bIMV Invasive mechanical ventilation, cn.a. not available