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Table 1 Baseline clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid characteristics of overall patients, survivors and non-survivors and univariate analysis

From: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid characteristics and outcomes of invasively mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Genoa, Italy

  All patients
(n = 64)
Survivors
(n = 43)
(67.2%)
Non-survivors
(n = 21)
21 (32.8%)
P
Sex, Male (%) 49 (76.6) 33 (76.7) 16 (76.2) 1
Age, years, median (IQRa) 64 (58–69) 61 (55–67) 69 (66–72) 0.033
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease 34 (53.1) 23 (53.5) 11 (52.4) 1
 Immunodepressionb (%) 11 (17.2) 7 (16.3) 4 (19.0) 1
 Chronic Kidney disease (%) 4 (6.2) 3 (6.9) 1 (4.7) 1
 Cerebrovascular disease (%) 4 (6.2) 2 (4.6) 2 (9.5) 1
 Chronic obstructive lung disease (%) 6 (9.4) 2 (4.6) 4 (19.0) 0.084
Days from the onset of symptoms to ICUc admission, median (IQR) 9 (6–15) 10 (7–15) 8 (6–14) 0.699
Days from the SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis to BALFd performing, median (IQR) 4 (2–8) 4 (3–9) 4 (2–7) 0.254
Duration (days) of mechanical ventilation, median (IQR) 10 (7–17) 10 (7–13) 11 (6–18) 0.329
Treatment
 Darunavir/ritonavir (%) 32 (50) 21(48.8) 11 (25.6) 1
 Hydroxychloroquine (%) 61 (95.3) 42 (97.7) 19 (90.5) 0.249
 Corticosteroids (%) 38 (59.3) 29 (67.4) 9 (42.9) 0.103
 Tocilizumab (%) 25 (39) 18 (41.8) 7 (33.3) 0.592
 Immunoglobulin (%) 8 (12.5) 8 (18.6) 0 0.178
 LWMHe (%) 59 (92.1) 41 (95.3) 18 (85.7) 0.320
Chest radiographic abnormality:
 Interstitial pattern (%) 24 (37.5) 15 (34.8) 9 (42.8) 0.578
 Bilateral consolidation (%) 37 (57.8) 25 (58.1) 12 (57.1) 1
 Monolateral consolidation (%) 16 (26) 11 (25.6) 5 (23.8) 1
 Pleural effusion (%) 3 (4.7) 1 (2.3) 2 (9.5) 0.234
Peripheral blood values at time of BALF performing
 IL-6f ng/L, median (IQR) 86 (31–344) 63 (17–175) 172 (60–935) 0.236
 IL6/lymphocytes, median (IQR) 296 (73–1704) 114 (52–456) 1269 (261–2599) 0.155
 D-dimer μg/L, median (IQR) 1389 (913–2334) 1361 (750–2252) 1704 (1238–2310) 0.937
 Ferritin μg/L, median (IQR) 992 (832–1458) 984 (837–1487) 1001 (536–1455) 0.338
 LDHgμg/L, median (IQR) 309 (274–372) 293 (267–355) 332 (298–396) 0.077
 Fibrinogen g/L, median (IQR) 5.7 (3.9–7.3) 5.7 (4.4–7.3) 5 (3.4–7) 0.272
 CRPh mg/dl, median (IQR) 86 (22–145) 87 (30–138) 84 (16–157) 0.462
 PaO2/FiO2i Ratio 155 (129–241) 175 (129–258) 157 (128–216) 0.935
  1. aIQR Interquartile Range, bImmunodepression hematological and/or solid malignancy, chronic treatment with immunosuppressant drugs, cICU intensive care unit, dBALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, eLWMH low molecular weight heparin, fIL-6 interleukin-6, gLDH lactate dehydrogenase,hCRP C-reactive-protein, iPaO2/FiO2 arterial oxygen partial pressure/ fractional inspired oxygen